Science & Materials for Construction & the Built Environment

Added on - 21 Jul 2020

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NAME OF INSTITUTIONScience & Materials for Construction & the BuiltEnvironment[Type the document subtitle]Student Name:Registration ID:
ContentsQ no. 1 Properties and Use of Common Construction Materials.................................................51.1 Steel:......................................................................................................................................51.2 Copper:..................................................................................................................................51.3 Aluminium:...........................................................................................................................51.4 Timber:..................................................................................................................................51.5 Concrete:...............................................................................................................................51.6 Cement:.................................................................................................................................51.7 Glass:.....................................................................................................................................6Q no. 2: Performance of Construction Materials in the Specified Areas:...................................72.1 Concrete Basements:............................................................................................................72.1.1Concrete to be used as basement material:....................................................................72.2 Steel for Structural Frame:..................................................................................................82.3 Aluminium for Facade:........................................................................................................8Q no. 3: Loading Structural Materials..........................................................................................93.1 Reinforced Concrete.............................................................................................................93.1.1 General structure behavior............................................................................................93.1.2 Suitability and limitation of use.....................................................................................93.1.3 Form of loading............................................................................................................103.1.4 Inherence of property...................................................................................................103.2 Structural steel....................................................................................................................103.2.1 General structure behavior..........................................................................................103.2.2 Suitability and limitation..............................................................................................103.2.3 Form of loading............................................................................................................113.2.4 Inherence of property...................................................................................................113.3 Timber.................................................................................................................................123.3.1 General structure behavior..........................................................................................123.3.2 Suitability and limitation of use...................................................................................123.3.3 Form of loading............................................................................................................123.3.4 Inherence of property...................................................................................................13
Q no. 4 Comparison of Steel, RC and Timber under Loads.......................................................134.1 Steel.....................................................................................................................................134.2 RC:.......................................................................................................................................134.3 Timber:................................................................................................................................13Q no. 5 Building Services Calculations:......................................................................................155.1 Thermal Calculations:........................................................................................................155.1.1 U point calculation:......................................................................................................155.1.2 Temperature Gradient and Dew point Calculation:...................................................165.1.3 Temperature Gradient and Dew Point Gradient Graphs:..........................................185.2 Artificial Lightening Calculation:......................................................................................195.3 Natural Lightening Calculation:........................................................................................205.4 Sound Reverberation for Suite:..........................................................................................20Q no. 6 BUILDING SERVICES INTEGRATION.....................................................................216.1 Internal distribution of services.........................................................................................216.1.1Vertical distribution of services....................................................................................216.1.2 Horizontal distribution of services...............................................................................226.2 Under-floor distribution.....................................................................................................22Q no. 7: Heat loss and Heat gain Calculation:...........................................................................237.1 Heat Loss.............................................................................................................................237.1.1 Fabric Heat Loss..........................................................................................................237.1.2 Ventilation heat loss.....................................................................................................237.2 Heat Gain from Occupants:...............................................................................................247.3 Solid Fuel Mass required for a season of 33 weeks:.........................................................24Q no. 8: Comparing Mixes...........................................................................................................248.1 PFA Slump and compressive Strength Test.......................................................................248.1.1 Workability (Slump Test).............................................................................................248.1.2Compressive Strength....................................................................................................258.2 OPC Mix..............................................................................................................................268.2.1 Workability (Slump Test).............................................................................................268.2.2 Compressive Strength...................................................................................................268.3 Steel Needle Reinforcement................................................................................................27
8.3.1 Slump Test....................................................................................................................278.3.2 Compressive Strength...................................................................................................278.4 Steel reinforcing bars tensile strength...............................................................................28Bibliography...............................................................................................................................................29
Q no. 1 Properties and Use of Common Construction Materials1.1 Steel:Steel is considered as an alloy of steel. Due to its strength and durability steel is an importantpart of building and construction. Steel strength and durability and its many properties make itsuitable to be used in the structures exposed to heat, weather and constant usage. Steel is used inbridges, high rise buildings, footings and other load bearing structures1.2 Copper:Copper is a non reactive material, that’s why it does not get corroded when exposed toweather. Copper is normally used in pipes, electrical cables and radiators. Copper isconsidered to be a hygienic material and it tends down the growth of bacteria and germs.Copper is a ductile material that’s why it is used in the manufacturing of pipes. Copper isa tough metal and it can be used for the manufacturing of tools and door handles.1.3 Aluminium:Aluminium is a low density material and it is resistant to corrosion. Aluminium is a malleablemetal and good conductor of heat and electricity. It can be polished for aesthetical purposes. Lowdensity of Aluminium makes it ideal for construction of ladders, window frames and light weightstructures. Aluminium can be shaped easily and it is corrosion resistant. Aluminium isconsidered a good conductor and highly reflective.[ CITATION Alu \l 1033 ]1.4 Timber:Thermal conductivity of timber is very low. Aluminium and steel transmits heats 7000 and 1700times greater than the timber. That’s why timber is used in ceilings and wall coverings. Timber isresistant to electric current. Timber is easy to handle and it is labor friendly. Timber undergoestermite attack that can deteriorate it completely. A protective coating can resist the termite andweather attack on timber and it can be used for long.[ CITATION Tim \l 1033 ]1.5 Concrete:Durable and long lasting structures are built up of concrete. That will not rust nor burn.Life span of structures made up of concrete is a way more that other structures.Structures or buildings with concrete walls, floors and foundations are highly energyefficient.Concrete can be produced on site and in the quantity needed, thereby it reduces wastematerial. The concrete can also be crushed and recycled into aggregates that can be usedin pavements and other structures.
1.6 Cement:Cement is considered as binder material in concrete. It is mixed with water and sand to make aplaster that is applied on walls to bind up the bricks with one another.1.7 Glass:Tough material and gets broken upon sudden stresses. Used in windows, doors and ventilationsand also used for cladding works.Table 1: Properties and uses of Construction materials:StrengthElasticityWateradsorptionMoisturemovementThermalconductivityElectricalDurabilityworkabilityViscositySteelExhibitshightensilestrengthSteel iselasticmaterialandresume itsshapewhenloading isremovedWaterrepellant.Getscorrodedinpresenceof waterLow inmoisturecontentThermalconductivity of steelrangesfrom 12 to45 Wm/kConductorDurableand vastlyusedSteelmaterialwith highgrade canresist alargeamount ofloadingstress.NoCopperSoftmaterialCan bepermanentlydeformedwithoutbreakingDo notabsorbwaterLow M.CConductiveConductiveIsaductilemetal andused inmanyworksHighlyworkableNoAlum.HighstrengthLessElastic ascomparedto steelWaterrepellantLow inmoisturecontentLessconductiveconductiveDurableand longlastingUsed inwindowsframes,laddersand rooflayersNoTim.Dependson thesourceandupbringing of TreeLessElasticAbsorbwaterKeepabsorbingwater untilM.Cbecomesequal tosurroundingsVery lessconductiveto HeatNonconductiveDurable ifused withprotectivecoatingHighworkableand easyto useNoConc.HighstrengthNoAbsorbwater togain itsmaxstrengthLow inM.CLessconductiveto heatVery lessconductiveDurableand usedin manyhigh risestructuresHighlyworkableNoCem.Used as abinder togainstrengthNoAbsorbwater togainstrengthLow inM.C if notexposed toweatherLessconductiveto heatNoDurableand longlasting ifused withLimeHighlyworkableNoGlassOnlyholdsruptureNonelasticmaterialnonoConductiveto heatNoNotdurable.Will getVery lessworkableNo
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