Negotiation and Conflict Resolution : Assignment
Added on - 29 Apr 2020
Running head: NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTIONNegotiation and Conflict ResolutionName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTIONNegotiation: An OverviewNegotiation is a voluntary process through which disputant parties come to an agreementwith a view to resolve their disputes. Negotiation process refers to a dispute resolution processwherein the negotiating parties with conflicting interests attempt to adjust such differences tocome to an agreement in the expectation to gain. The common need to reach to an agreementwith the expectation to gain is the driving force for the negotiation process, which leads thedisputants to a level of interdependence. Either each party to the negotiation process maycooperate with each other to reach their respective objectives or they may act as hindrance foreach other in the attainment of their respective goals and objectives1. The participants in thenegotiation process may become either partners or adversaries owing to the difference in thequality of the relation and the nature of the contradicting issues, attitudes, behaviors andperceptions. This research paper discusses about the various ethical conflicts that arises innegotiation process with respect to ethnic diversity that prevails in the society. This paper aims atexplaining about the two aspects, cooperative and conflicting, that entails in the negotiationprocess and the significant role played by a negotiator in maintaining a balance between thesetwo aspects to attain a solution that is mutually acceptable by the participants of the process.Meaning of ethicsEthics can be described as a social standard that determines what is right and what iswrong in particular circumstances2. It may also be defined as a process for setting out the rulesthat determines whether a particular conduct in a specific situation is right or wrong.1Swann Jr, William B., and Jennifer K. Bosson. "IDENTITY NEGOTIATION IN SOCIAL INTERACTION."Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Expectancies (2016): 96.2Jang, Daisung, Hillary Anger Elfenbein, and William P. Bottom. "More than a Phase: Planning, Bargaining, andImplementation in Theories of Negotiation." (2017).
2NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTIONReason for selecting unethical behaviorThree preeminent motivational factors that leads a negotiator adopt or resort to unethicalconduct in the negotiating process are enumerated as below:a)The motive to earn profit;b)The desire to defeat an opponent in a competitive environment;c)The need to restore certain standard of justice that has been infringed;The three significant categories of ethical conduct that were used to describe the variousnegotiating strategies and tactics include truth telling, relativism and means/ends. The more oneadheres to the rules and procedures, the more one believes that abiding by such rules andprocedures shall lead them to achieve their intended objectives. The second category ofnegotiating strategy, which includes relativism, compels the negotiator to deal with the questionsthat whether there are any rules that determines a right and a wrong conduct. According to Fells(2016), misrepresentation, bluffing and distortion of facts are certain other factors that becomeessential to use as a negotiating strategy in a negotiation process which are perceived asunethical and inappropriate by others.Several ethical issues exist in a negotiating process, which is more than any ethical issuesthat may arise in other forms of interpersonal transactions. It is believed that most of the times, anegotiator resorts to the application of the unethical negotiating strategies or tactic with the soleobjective to enhance their negotiating power. They believe that power can be obtained bymanipulating or distorting the accurate facts or information, obtaining detailed information aboutthe plan of the opponent or by discouraging the capability of the opponent in order to attain their
3NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTIONgoals3. The use of such unethical negotiating tactics or strategies leads to two types of outcomes.Firstly, they either attain or fail to attain their desired goals and secondly, their opponent or theobservers criticize their strategies or tactics. Negotiators are often compelled to justify theirapplication of the negotiating strategies that is, they know they have something wrong and it isnecessary to justify the same with a good reason.It is believed that the decision taken by the negotiators to use ethical or unethicalstrategies and tactics may be influenced by several factors. These include differences inindividual backgrounds, rewards, punishments or personalities that are associated with theethical or unethical conduct4. Further, various social and cultural norms determine whether aparticular conduct was right or wrong in a given situation.The other factors that may influence the negotiator to resort to unethical negotiatingstrategy in a negotiation process are as follows:i.While deciding to resort to the application of any unethical conduct in a negotiatingprocess, a negotiator may be influenced largely by his belief regarding the outcome of hischoice of negotiating strategy. A negotiator usually selects a type of negotiation tacticthat would enable him to achieve his/her desired objectives and the type of response suchnegotiator is likely to receive from others with respect to the use of such unethicalnegotiating strategy;ii.Since there is usually a disagreement regarding the kinds of negotiating tactics that areunethical or ethical and the situation in which such tactics would be appropriate or3Ting-Toomey, Stella. "CONFLICT FACE-NEGOTIATION THEORY." Conflict Management and InterculturalCommunication: The Art of Intercultural Harmony (2017): 123.4Olekalns, Mara, and Wendi L. Adair, eds. Handbook of research on negotiation. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013.