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Design & Implementation of a Network

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Added on  2023-03-24

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This document provides an introduction to networking, including the basics of networking, advantages of networking, types of networks, and models of networking. It also covers the components of a network, such as cables, network interface cards, hubs, switches, and wireless networks. The document discusses the advantages and disadvantages of wireless LANs compared to wired LANs.

Design & Implementation of a Network

   Added on 2023-03-24

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Design & Implementation of a Network
Date: October 27th 2017
CONTENTS
1
Design & Implementation of a Network_1
Contents
1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................3
1.1 Basic of Networking.................................................................................................................4
1.2 Advantages of Networking .....................................................................................................4
2.0 Role associated with networks.................................................................................................5
3.0 Networking products and features:...........................................................................................7
4.0 Design efficient networked techniques -...................................................................................9
5.0 Diagnose and implement network systems Devices...............................................................16
6.0 Design efficient networked techniques...................................................................................20
7.0 Conclusion:.............................................................................................................................43
8.0 Reference................................................................................................................................44
1.0 Introduction
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Design & Implementation of a Network_2
This Introduction to Networking document should be read in the
context of other information provided on the networking section of the
NCTE website, and in association with the NCTE Advice and Planning
Pack issued to in 2002. This introduction document is not meant to be
a comprehensive guide to all aspects of networking but rather is
focused on providing with a basic understanding of the issues related
to Networking in.
The purpose of the networking guidelines are as follows:
to assist in understanding the benefits of networking
To help place in context their current stage of networking
development in their school.
To assist in planning the next stage of network development in
their school.
to provide standard networking ‘models’ and best practice to
that will assist in their network planning.
This document includes information under the following main
headings:
Introduction to Networking
Advantages of Networking
Types of Networks
Models of networking appropriate to
NCTE rrecommendation to
Some relevant terms.
1.1. Basic of Networking
A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and
other equipment that is connected together so that they can
communicate with each other (see Advice Sheet 17 on the ICT Planning
for pack). Fig 1 gives an example of a network in a school comprising
of a local area network or LAN connecting computers with each other,
the internet, and various servers.
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Design & Implementation of a Network_3
Fig 1: Representation of Network in a school.
Broadly speaking, there are two types of network configuration, peer-
to-peer networks and client/server networks.
Peer-to-peer networks are more commonly implemented where less
then ten computers are involved and where strict security is not
necessary. All computers have the same status, hence the term 'peer',
and they communicate with each other on an equal footing. Files, such
as word processing or spreadsheet documents, can be shared across
the network and all the computers on the network can share devices,
such as printers or scanners, which are connected to any one
computer.
Fig 2: Peer to Peer Networking
Client/server networks are more suitable for larger networks. A
central computer, or 'server', acts as the storage location for files and
applications shared on the network. Usually the server is a higher than
average performance computer. The server also controls the network
access of the other computers which are referred to as the 'client'
School ‘Local Area
Network’ (LAN)
Modem or Router
Access to:
Internet content &
learning resources,
Scoilnet etc
Email communication
Cache, Proxy,
Filtering, Firewall
Server
Users
Computers
Other users,
Computers
File and Print Server
CD or Multimedia
Servers
Printers, Scanners etc.
Peer to Peer
Network
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Design & Implementation of a Network_4
computers. Typically, teachers and students in a school will use the
client computers for their work and only the network administrator
(usually a designated staff member) will have access rights to the
server.
Fig 3: Client - Server Networking
Table 1 provides a summary comparison between Peer-to-Peer and
Client/Server Networks.
Peer-to-Peer Networks vs. Client/Server Networks
Peer-to-Peer Networks Client/Server Networks
· Easy to set up · More difficult to set up
· Less expensive to install · More expensive to install
· Can be implemented on a
wide range of operating
systems
· A variety of operating systems
can be supported on the client
computers, but the server needs to
run an operating system that
supports networking
· More time consuming to
maintain the software being
used (as computers must be
managed individually)
· Less time consuming to maintain
the software being used (as most
of the maintenance is managed
from the server)
· Very low levels of security
supported or none at all. These
can be very cumbersome to set
up, depending on the operating
· High levels of security are
supported, all of which are
controlled from the server. Such
measures prevent the deletion of
File Server
Other
equipment
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Design & Implementation of a Network_5
system being used essential system files or the
changing of settings
· Ideal for networks with less
than 10 computers
· No limit to the number of
computers that can be supported
by the network
· Does not require a server · Requires a server running a
server operating system
· Demands a moderate level of
skill to administer the network
· Demands that the network
administrator has a high level of IT
skills with a good working
knowledge of a server operating
system
Table 1: Peer-to-Peer Networks vs. Client/Server Networks
Components of a Network
A computer network comprises the following components:
A minimum of at least 2 computers
Cables that connect the computers to each other, although
wireless communication is becoming more common (see Advice
Sheet 20 for more information)
A network interface device on each computer (this is called a
network interface card or NIC)
A ‘Switch’ used to switch the data from one point to another.
Hubs are outdated and are little used for new installations.
Network operating system software
Structured Cabling
The two most popular types of structured network cabling are
twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as
10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except
that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks like the copper
coaxial cabling that's often used to connect a Video Recorder to a TV.
10BaseT Cabling
When 10BaseT cabling is used, a strand of cabling is inserted between
each computer and a hub. If you have 5 computers, you'll need 5
cables. Each cable cannot exceed 325 feet in length. Because the
cables from all of the PCs converge at a common point, a 10BaseT
network forms a star configuration.
Fig 4a shows a Cat5e cable, with a standard connector, known as an
RJ-45 connector.
Fig 4b shows a standard Cat5e Wall Outlet socket which the cables are
connected to.
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Design & Implementation of a Network_6
Fig 4c shows a standard Cat5e Patch Panel Wall Outlet socket which is
used to terminate the cables from various points in the school bank to
a central point.
Fig 4d shows a wall mounted cabinet used to house and protect patch
panel cables and connectors.
Fig 4a: Cat5e Cable and a close up of RJ-45 connector
Fig 4b: Cat5e Wall Outlets
Fig 4c: Cat5e Patch Panel
Fig4d: Wall Mounted Cabinet
10BaseT cabling is available in different grades or categories. Some
grades, or "cats", are required for Fast Ethernet networks, while others
are perfectly acceptable for standard 10Mbps networks--and less
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Design & Implementation of a Network_7
expensive, too. All new networks use a minimum of standard
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) Category 5e 10BaseT cabling
because it offers a performance advantage over lower grades.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
A NIC (pronounced 'nick') is also known as a network card. It connects
the computer to the cabling, which in turn links all of the computers on
the network together. Each computer on a network must have a
network card. Most modern network cards are 10/100 NICs and can
operate at either 10Mbps or 100Mbps.
Only NICs supporting a minimum of 100Mbps should be used in new
installations.
Computers with a wireless connection to a network also use a network
card (see Advice Sheet 20 for more information on wireless
networking).
Fig 5: Network Interface Cards (NICs)
Hub and Switch
A hub is a device used to connect a PC to the network. The function of
a hub is to direct information around the network, facilitating
communication between all connected devices. However in new
installations switches should be used instead of hubs as they are more
effective and provide better performance. A switch, which is often
termed a 'smart hub'.
Switches and hubs are technologies or ‘boxes’ to which computers,
printers, and other networking devices are connected. Switches are the
more recent technology and the accepted way of building today's
networks. With switching, each connection gets "dedicated bandwidth"
and can operate at full speed. In contrast, a hub shares bandwidth
across multiple connections such that activity from one PC or server
can slow down the effective speed of other connections on the hub.
Now more affordable than ever, Dual-speed 10/100 autosensing
switches are recommended for all school networks. May want to
consider upgrading any hub based networks with switches to improve
network performance – i.e. speed of data on the network.
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Design & Implementation of a Network_8

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