Nudges and Behavior Change.

Added on - 20 Sep 2019

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Running Head: Nudges and Behavior ChangePSYCHOLOGYNUDGES AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE
Nudges and Behavior Change1Table of ContentsExecutive Summary.........................................................................................................................1Introduction......................................................................................................................................1Theories, Techniques and Models of Behavior Change..................................................................21.The theory of reasoned action and the planned behavior.....................................................22.The health belief model........................................................................................................33.Trans-theoretical model........................................................................................................44.The social psychological theory...........................................................................................55.The learning and the behavior theory...................................................................................6Role of Technology in Supporting Behavior Change......................................................................7Systematic Design Processes to Create Effective Change Interventions........................................8Ability to Design, Develop and Application of Behavior Change Interventions to Real-WorldScenarios and the Challenges........................................................................................................10Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................12Recommendations..........................................................................................................................13REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................14APPENDICES...............................................................................................................................16
Nudges and Behavior Change2Executive SummaryThis paper presents different theories, techniques, and models of behavior change which providesignificant information and summarize some of the cross-cutting themes and central elements ofthe behavior change. Different theories and models of the behavior change reviewed under thehuman behavior and social science discipline. On the other hand role of technology also studiedto support the behavior change. This will help human beings in understanding the systematicapproaches of behavior change interventions which further helps them in applying their behaviorto their real world challenges.IntroductionIt has been observed that the behavior contributes to the present morbidity and the mortality. Thechanges interventions of the behavior are significant in the prevention. The change interventionsof the behavior are mainly complicated, and it comprises the various components. Further,according to the reports, it has been observed that the change interventions of the behavior areeffective, but people do not understand appropriately that the effectiveness is being defined asthe variable. The theories and the techniques which are ineffective are being used more by theindividuals as compared to the effective theories, and the techniques are not used adequately.Moreover, the effective techniques, theories and the models of behavior change are beingdiscussed along with the role of technology in order to support the change of behavior.Furthermore, systematic design processes will be discussed in order to create the effectiveinterventions of change. Also, the ability to design, develop and further the application of thechange interventions of the behavior to the scenarios of real-world will be discussed along withthe various challenges.
Nudges and Behavior Change3Theories, Techniques, and Models of Behavior Change1.The theory of reasoned action and the planned behaviorThis theory is one of the most broadly applied theories of behavior. The theory acts as thebehavior’s predictor. Further, the theory is used in order to predict the behavior and analyze thebehavior. It has been observed that the theory can augur around 30 percent of the behavior'svariance that is being brought through interventions (Montano, D. E., & Kasprzyk, D. 2015).Moreover, as the theory helps in predicting the behavior, it is a great technique in order to unfoldthe specific influences which are required to be changed. Further, the theory can be used in orderto understand the behavior of an individual like what is their intention behind the particular act towhich they react. The figure given below will help in understanding that how the theory can beapplied in orders to understand the factors of the behavior which are required to be changed.
Nudges and Behavior Change4Figure1Application of reasoned action and planned behavior theory2.The health belief modelThis is the model of cognition which demonstrates that the behavior is being arbitrated by thenumerous beliefs in relation to the threat to the well-being of an individual along with theoutcomes and the effectiveness of specific behavior and the actions. The theory also follows theself-efficacy concept along with the action's beliefs. Further, the beliefs are incremented by thestimuli which are considered as action cues that trigger the adaptation of the behavior. Thetheory helps in identifying the perceived vulnerability and the susceptibility of the individual andthe seriousness of the consequences which might result in the outcome. The theory is being usedin order to identify the intention of behavior which is being perceived from the threat and thebehavior’s effectiveness (Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. 2014).
Nudges and Behavior Change5Figure2Application of health belief model3.Trans-theoretical modelThis theory is also known as the stages of change, and it is based on the levels of readiness ofmotivation along with the continuum of the change of behavior. Further, the rationale of thismodel is that the persons at the same level of the stage might face similar barriers and theproblems and this theory helps them by the similar type of intervention. Moreover, the transitionamong the stages of change can be driven by a balance of the decision and the self-efficacy.Therefore, the theory can be applied adequately when an individual will face the variouschallenges at various levels.
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