Nursing Assignment MRSA Infection

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: MRSAMRSAName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1MRSATable of ContentsIntroduction..................................................................................................................................2Implications of MRSA outbreak................................................................................................2Results (MRSA treatment)...........................................................................................................4Discussion...................................................................................................................................5Consequences.........................................................................................................................5Conclusion...................................................................................................................................6References..................................................................................................................................7Appendix......................................................................................................................................9
2MRSAIntroductionMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) is an infection caused by Staphor type ofStaphylococcus aureusbacteria that is resistant to antibiotics naturally residing onthe skin and nose. This bacterium is highly contagious and spread from an infected personthrough direct contact. This infection occurs in groups who have prolonged hospital staysimpacting their health and at the same time result in dissemination of the organism to peopleand environment. MRSA infection is divided into two forms: (hospital-acquired) HA-MRSA and(community acquired) CA-MRSA. HA-MRSA is associated with infections occurring in medicalfacilities like nursing homes or hospitals occurs through direct contact with contaminated handsor infected wounds (1). CA-MRSA infections are transmitted through close contact with aninfected person and develop due to poor hygiene such as improper or infrequent hand washing.HA-MRSA causes serious complications like pneumonia, sepsis or urinary tract infectionscausing notable symptoms like rash, headaches, chills, fevers, cough, and fatigue, shortness ofbreath or chest pain. CA-MRSA causes skin infections in the form of painful and woollen bumpon the skin called cellulitis. MRSA outbreak in hospitals has serious implications as it mainlyoccur in individuals who have prolonged hospital stays. MRSA infection is resistant to antibioticsand has severe side effects; however, it is treated with limited antibiotics higher than usualantibiotics (2). These consequences have serious implications on the public health andtherefore, the following report deals with the implications of MRSA outbreak, treatmentprocedures and consequences.Of the 116 articles retrieved, only 26 were reviewed. A total number of 10 articles were includedin the present review as they met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 3 articles were selected forstudying the implications of MRSA outbreak; 2 articles were selected for highlighting themethods for MRSA treatment; 5articles were selected for assessing the consequences ofMRSA infection.Implications of MRSA outbreakMRSA has serious implications on public health in acute and long-term health settingsworldwide. The spread of infection in the hospitals are dangerous as it defy treatment and cancause life-threatening illness. It can spread by direct contact or patients having open woundsare mostly at risk for skin infections. According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), one in three (33%) individuals is the carriers of this staph bacterium with absent of
3MRSAillness and 2 in 100 are the MRSA carriers (3). MRSA is a drug resistant bacterium havinglimited treatment options is affecting the lives of patients through massive spread of the infectionin the hospitals and communities. It is becoming impossible to eliminate the risk for infection asit sustains antibiotics and is highly contagious.In a study of MRSA outbreak in Orange County, California, it was found that hospitalsare the main regions where MRSA outbreak occurs that is affecting the hospital as a whole (4).The extensive data collected from the hospital wards in terms of hospital stays, intrawardtransmission coefficients (beta), time of readmission and loss rate. The result findings showedthat it not only affected single hospital, but also all the hospitals in the network depending uponthe demographic and outbreak size.The average transmission rate was high from singlehospital to other hospitals from 5% to 15%. This result suggests that MRSA infection is notconfined to one hospital. It spread to all the hospitals in that particular region. The strength ofthe paper is that the result findings highlighted the need for prevention and infection controlstrategies and policies accounting for interconnectedness in the healthcare facilities. Theobtained data can be applied to other regions, as it may be not unique. However, the paper hascertain limitations. The study was limited to the adult population and excluded the neonates inlong-term facilities or nursing homes. There might be fair chances of hospital outbreak when apatient is being transferred in a nursing home patient.In another study using Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA), authorsaugmented that existing outbreaks in hospitals of California are added with nursing homes andMRSA simulated outbreaks too other healthcare facilities (5). The results suggested thatalthough nursing homes are not directly connected with patient transfer also plays a vital role inthe spreading of hospital infection. Nursing homes and hospitals are connected to each otherboth directly and indirectly in patients sharing contributing to the outbreak of MRSA havingserious implications for the patents, hospital staffs and community as a whole. The strength ofthe study is that main findings provided understandable information for the spread and control ofinfectious pathogen is important for all inpatient facilities like hospitals and nursing homes. Themain limitation of the paper is that it considered only in hospitals and underestimated the MRSAin nursing homes and no data on emergency departments and again considered adultpopulation and not paediatrics as witnessed in the above study.MRSA outbreak also has serious implications remaining above provincial benchmarks.Due to MRSA-hospital, acquired infection (HAI), the daily work life and health of healthcare
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