Running head: NURSING ASSIGNMENTNursing assignmentName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1NURSING ASSIGNMENTAnswer one Congestive heart failure (CHF) affects the pumping capacity of the heart muscles and is achronic progressive condition. CHF refers to the specific stage where the fluids build up aroundthe heart resulting in ineffective pumping. The blood is unable to move efficiently through thecirculatory system, increases the pressure in the blood vessels and as a result, forces fluid out ofblood vessels into the body tissues (Roger, 2013). The symptoms depend on the body area that ismostly involved in the reduction of pumping action. CHF is caused by health conditions thatdirect affect the cardiovascular system like coronary heart disease, hypertension, cardiomyopathyand abnormal heart rhythms (Damasceno et al., 2012). The patient has high blood pressure(170/110 mmHg) that forces the heart to work harder for circulating the blood. This extraexertion makes the heart muscles become too weak or stiff in order to pump blood effectively.The damage to the heart or cardiomyopathy makes the heart muscle become thick, enlarged orrigid making it hard for the heart to pump blood throughout the body (Hall, Levant & DeFrances,2012). In the given case study, the patient has a history of myocardial infarction (MI) thatcaused sinus bradycardia making the heart weak. CHF is frequent in patients who have a historyof MI and is a clear manifestation of acute alternations that occur in left ventricular functioning.The individuals who have acute myocardial infarction with no complications are likely to beprone to CHF. The left ventricular dysfunction causes the heart failure progression and this leftventricular dysfunction contributes to arrhythmic substrate (Heusch et al., 2014). Therefore, inthe given case study, the risk factors for the patient are high blood pressure and myocardialinfarction that contributed to the CHF condition. As mentioned in the case study, Mrs. Mckenzieforgets to take her medicines that aggravated the MI condition resulting in CHF.
2NURSING ASSIGNMENTCHF is a significant burden for the Australian healthcare system where ~50-75% isdiagnosed with the disease and 1-3% healthcare spending. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)affect every one in six Australians that is equivalent to 4.2 million resulting in 490,000hospitalizations during the year 2014-2015. About 30% of the deaths that occurred during theyear 2015 were largely preventable (Atherton et al., 2012). CHF is a personal tragedy for the patients and their families. The individuals with CHFhave impaired Quality of Life (QOL) as compared to a healthy population. This poor QOL has amultidimensional impact on the daily living and treatment of the patients (Yeh & Bull, 2012).The unpredictable symptoms leave patients helpless and dependent on others with lack ofmotivation. There is lack of control over the illness and a burden on the healthcare system. Thereis burden on the family members while taking care of the patients with heart failure, as there is agreat responsibility for care. There is also financial burden on the family members due toexpenditures related to patient’s care. These factors greatly have a psychological and economicimpact on the patient and their family members. In addition, these factors affect the patient’swell-being and family functioning (Burton et al., 2012). Answer two The symptoms of cardiac failure are seen when the heart is unable to pump enough bloodto the rest parts of the body. This does not mean that heart is not working rather pumping poweris weak than normal. The blood moves to the body at slow rate and as a result, the blood pressureincreases. In this situation, the heart is unable to pump enough nutrients and oxygen to meet theneeds of the body. The chambers of the heart stretch hard to hold more blood for pumpingthrough the body and as a result, the heart walls become eventually weak and stiffness prevails
3NURSING ASSIGNMENT(Kemp & Conte, 2012). Although, the blood keeps moving, the heart wall muscles becomeunstable and weak to cause efficient blood pumping. As a result, the kidneys causes retention ofwater and fluid by responding to this situation that builds up in the ankles, legs, lungs, feet andother organs. Eventually, the body comes in a congested state and heart failure describing CHF. During the early stages, the patient may feel tired with shortness of breath, dizziness,mild nausea, swollen ankles and irregular heartbeats. Mrs McKenzie manifested thesesymptoms in the given case scenario. In CHF, the fluid backs up in the lungs that interfere withthe oxygen uptake into the blood that may result in shortness of breath or laboured breathing.This lung congestion can also cause wheezing or hacking cough (Ambrosy et al., 2013). Nauseaor loss of appetite is another symptom that is caused by water and fluid retention as less bloodflows to the kidneys (Marti et al., 2012). This results in swollen ankles or oedema as Mrs. Sharonreported that she has to wear bed socks as she complains about her cold feet. There is lesspumping of blood to the major organs and muscles that makes the patient feel weak and tired. Inaddition, there is also less blood reaching brain that causes confusion or dizziness. Answer three The class of drugs used for heart failure are shown to be effective in many ways whereone drug treats a different contributing factor or symptom. Among all, ACE inhibitors(angiotensin converting enzyme) are the best medicines for hypertension treatment andextensively used for CHF. The drug has the potentiality to blocks the Angiotensin II formation asit has adverse effects on heart and its circulation. ACE inhibitors can be helpful for Mrs.McKenzie as it demonstrates remarkable improvement in symptoms, prevention of the clinicaldeterioration and survival prolongation (McMurray et al., 2013). ACE inhibitors are
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