NURSING Tetanus answer to question

Added on - 25 Nov 2019

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1Running head: NURSINGNursingName of student:Name of university:Author note:
2NURSINGQ1.1. Tetanus is caused by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. This is a serious concern as Marymight develop tetanus due to infection with the bacteria when coming in contact withmanure, leading to severe medical complications. Tetanus also called as lockjaw, is thecondition in which muscle spasms are severe. The spasms initiate in the jaws andsuccessively progresses to the other parts of the body. The most adverse impact is bonefracture; other complications include a headache, fever increased heart rate and trouble inswallowing. Recovery takes months, depending on the patient, and research indicates thataround 10% of the individuals infected with this disease die.2.The guidelines in The Australian Immunisation Handbook state that administration oftetanus booster. The rationale for giving Mary the tetanus booster is to reduce the chances ofthe infection. A booster vaccine is to be given to any individual who has suffered a puncturewound and is uncertain of his last vaccination. In the present case, Mary had suffered a deep4 cm cut to her right calf. The booster would help in the formation of tetanus antibodieswithin the patient’s body within a short span of time (immunise.health.gov.au, 2017).Q2.1.The three wound observations for Mary were wound edges to be red and hot to touch;swelling in surrounding tissues, odorous and purulent discharge. These three observations aresigns and not symptoms of the condition. According to (Marieb & Hoehn, 2016), a symptomis the subjective evidence of any disease. In contrast, a sign is the objective evidence of anydisease. Thus, a symptom is the set of occurrences experienced by the individual who hasbeen effected by the disease; a sign is the set of occurrences that can be detected easily byother individuals in addition to the person who has developed the disease. In the present case,the three observations could be detected by individuals other than Mary.
3NURSING2. Tissue injury due to the deep cut suffered by Mary has led to the red and hot wound edgesas a result of the inflammatory response. The initial stimulation due to tissue injury isresponsible for the release of inflammatory chemicals. Inflammation is triggered due to injuryin the body, and the role is to prevent the spreading of damaging agents to the tissues that arein the surrounding. The common inflammatory chemicals are histamine, complement, kininsand prostaglandins. The chemicals promote vasodilation of the arterioles and promote theformation of exudates. The triggering of inflammation consequently leads to dilation ofarterioles. This process leads to increased blood flow to the area of injury. The process istermed as local hyperaemia. The subsequent results are increased heat in the area and redness.3.Swelling in the are of the wound is another result of the inflammatory response triggeredby the body. Release of cells like kinins and prostaglandins lead to increased capillarypermeability. As a result of this, the capillaries leak fluid, and the fluid that is highly rich inprotein gets filled up in the tissue spaces. The ultimate result is the swelling of the tissues.4.Inflammatory chemicals such as histamine and kinin increase the permeability of the localcapillaries. Exudates that contains antibodies and clotting factors are swept from the blood.This is the cause of exudates formation, commonly the odorous and purulent discharge(Marieb & Hoehn, 2016).Q3.1.Inflammation occurring in the wound area is the localised response that the body developsto the infection. However, the response of the body to the way microorganisms invade thebody is at times more severe and widespread. Fever is the abnormally high body temperaturethat is the systematic response of the body against the microorganisms that have invadedMary’s body through the wound site. When macrophages and leukocytes get exposed to anyincoming foreign body entering the patient’s body, chemicals known as pyrogens are