The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies

Added on - 29 Nov 2019

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Running head: NUTRITION - AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE1Nutrition - An International PerspectiveStudent NameInstitution
NUTRITION - AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE2IntroductionFood nutrition is an important health issue globally and malnutrition remaining a healthconcern. Malawi as a country also faces the food malnutrition problem with some regions suchas Zomba district being areas of concern. Vitamins and minerals deficiency is the keycomponents of malnutrition that are used to estimate the food insecurity in most part of thecountry. Public health concern focuses on the number of children that are experiencingmalnutrition in the District. The following paper explores various aspects of nutrition issues suchas anthropometric assessment, micronutrient deficiency and food security from an internationalperspective.1. Anthropometric assessment1.1In order to assess the Anthropometric assessment body mass index (BMI) becomes thebasic assessment where body weight and height are used to determine BMI. The ratio betweenthe body weight and height clearly reveal the nutritional condition of the child. The stepsinvolved in measuring the BMI are measuring weight using scale while height is measured usingtape. The ratio of weight to height is then calculated. This is used to determine underweight inchildren as a sign of malnutrition.1.2Indices that are calculated in anthropometric measurements include weight to height,weight to age and height to age. Firstly, weight to height is used to determine acute malnutrition
NUTRITION - AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE3that indicates body wasting. Secondly, height-for-age is an index for determining malnutritionproblem of chronic malnutrition that implies the child is stunting. Thirdly, weight-for-age isanother index for measuring the malnutrition problem of any protein-energy malnutrition as areflection of underweight (Ko et al, 2001).1.3Some of the indicators that are used in anthropometric are stunting, wasting, andunderweight. Firstly, stunting is where the height of children is lesser than their age and ismeasured in the ratio of height for age. The stunting is due to chronic malnutrition normallyprotein-energy malnutrition or frequent illness. Secondly, wasting is another indicator foranthropometric and is usually measured in terms of weight for height that reflects low weight ascompared to their height. Wasting can be due to starvation or severe disease that causes wastingof the body proteins. Thirdly, underweight is an indicator that shows the child has low weightwhen compared to their height measured in weight for age ratio. Weight can reduce by timeindicating the acute malnutrition status of the child. The scoring system that is used is Z scorethat measures the distance from median as the proportion of standard deviation. Therefore thecutoff point is -2 Z-score which is 2 standard deviations below international reference medianvalues. In addition, the cutoff compared the difference between well-nourished children fromthose malnourished (Bhutta et al, 2013).1.4Prevalence of the anthropometric indicators is used to show health problem in apopulation. The cutoff that is normally used is ˂-2 and ˃+2 Z-score that give the prevalence
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