(Doc) Business Model - Essay

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Ontological Considerations about the Representation ofEndurants and EventsIn Business ModelsConference PaperinLecture Notes in Computer Science, 2016ByGiancarlo Guizzardi and Joao Paulo A. AlmeidaName:Student ID:
IntroductionThis essay focuses on reviewing the article titled “Ontological considerations about therepresentation of events and endurants in business models”.It is an article published in a booktitled “Business Process Management” by Rio de Janeiro.It covers the proceedings of thefourteenth international conference on Business Process Management held in Brazil from 18thto22ndof September 2016. According to this article, events are entities covered in Business ProcessModeling while endurants are focused on in the Structural Conceptual Modeling. These twoentities are divided and this has an impact on conceptual modeling.This paper summarizes the discussion on the divide between events and endurants andthe ways in which the two can be included on the same model. The discussion focuses on theconsidered methods of incorporating a reference to events in structural conceptual models andendurants in business process models. Events and object-like entities are different in terms oftheir ontology. Including them on the same model is the problem under discussion. The articleintends to find a solution to this problem by outlining a few considerations of representing bothevents and endurants on business models.DiscussionBasing on the ontological nature, events can only be covered in a Business Process modelwhile endurants can be covered in the structural conceptual model (Ajnesh & Durepos, 2016).This topic highlights their differences in terms of characteristics and the disciplines under whichthey are covered.These are the entities that possess two categories of properties; accidental and essentialproperties. Essential properties are those possessed at all times while accidental ones are onlyportrayed in some situations. In the article, endurants are compared to the characteristics of ahuman being in terms of modal and qualitative. A person’s qualities can change without alteringthe identity of that person. Mr. Anderson’s weight can change. However, his identity will remainthe same. In modal properties, Mr. Anderson can be a computer hacker or a student of law.These two properties are non-physical in such a way that other people cannot see him directly asa computer hacker. In this case, his weight is an essential property while his occupation is anaccidental property since it can change his identity. Apart from this property, endurants are also2
entities that are always present with all their parts. Some properties that are prone to change arethere, while others remain the same all the time (Bergener, Delfmann, Burkhard & Winkelmann,2016).According to Yuna & Ana (2017), the OntoUML language is the language used in visualsimulation support to simulate structural conceptual models. Simulating these models gives themodeler an opportunity to identify the qualities of the endurants that can change and those thatremain the same. He/she can also identify which business worlds can be accessed from otherworlds. Events are the name given to such changes according to the article.Events are links to and from situations in the world and are relations between states ofaffairs. Events are endurants, which keep changing from one form to another. That is, theendurants can, in be created some cases destroyed, or they can also change properties. Events canalso possess qualities that represent temporal and spatial characteristics. For this reason, theydirectly depend on endurants for their existence. In the article, this dependence is compared tothe pumping of the heart. It is explained that the activity of the pumping of the heart is theevidence showing the ability and capability of the heart to pump. It is also compared to a metalgetting attracted to a magnet such that it depicts the ability of the magnet to attract the metal(Bérard & Delerue, 2010).After discussing the endurants in structural conceptual models, events in BusinessProcess models, their characteristics, and relationship, considerations of incorporating them inthe vice versa models are discussed.Traditionally, endurants have been represented in structural conceptual models (Tran,2010). Actually, events are hardly included in classical conceptual models. Structural conceptualmodels represent events as first-class citizens, despite the fact that there is no basis for guidingthis kind of modeling. A problem arises in the situation where the reference conceptual modelsare supposed to clarify concepts and depict characteristics of notions with controversial andadvanced worldviews. To investigate the consequences of representing events in the structuralconceptual models, identity, reference for events, and change are discussed.In this section, questions are raised in comparison to events with the characteristics ofendurants. The questions of whether events can also possess essential and accidental properties3
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