Ovarian Cancer- prevalence, Prevention and Treatment

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Ovarian Cancer- prevalence, prevention and treatmentStudentRashmi Thapa MagarStudent Number19519760Email Address19519760@student.curtin.edu.auCourseBSC NursingUnitFoundation of Professional Health Practice CMHL 1000Lecture/TutorDevra, MariaDue Date23rdMarch 2018I declare that this assignment is my work and has not been submitted in any form for anotherunit, degree or diploma at any university or another institute of tertiary education.Information derived from the published or unpublished work of others has beenacknowledged in the text and a list of references is given. I warrant that any disks and/orcomputer files submitted as part of this assignment have been checked for viruses andreported cleanStudent signature:R. T. MagarDate:23rdMarch 2018Rashmi Thapa Magar19519760CMHL Draft Written Assignment
Table of Contents1.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................................12:0 Definition.............................................................................................................................13:0 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in Australia and USA..........................................................13:1 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in United States of America (USA)................................13.2 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in Australia......................................................................24:0 Prevention and treatment of Ovarian Cancer.......................................................................24:1 Surgery.............................................................................................................................24:2 Chemotherapy..................................................................................................................34.3. Early screening of ovarian Cancer..................................................................................35.0 Health Care Professionals in Ovarian Cancer......................................................................45.1 Role of Surgical oncologist..............................................................................................45.2 Rehabilitation therapists in ovarian cancer treatment......................................................46.0 Impact of ovarian cancer on community..............................................................................57:0 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................5References..................................................................................................................................6Rashmi Thapa Magar19519760CMHL Draft Written Assignment
11.0 IntroductionThe main aim of this article is to reflect on ovarian cancer, its prevalence or incidence inAustralia and USA. It also provides the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer. Webb,Green, and Jordan (2017) suggested that ovarian cancer was listed seventh most commoncancer in women globally with 240,000 new cases in 2012.2:0 DefinitionOvarian cancer is a life-threating disease, with only 30%of cure rate (Lengyel, 2010).Ovarian Cancer arises when atypical cells in a fallopian tube, an ovary in an uncontrolledway. These ovaries are in pair found in the uterus of the female reproductive system (CancerAustralia, 2018). There are three possible sites of ovarian cancer originations: the fallopiantube, the surfaces of the ovary, or the mesothelium-lined peritoneal cavity (Lengyel, 2010).Older age, family background of ovarian cancer, use of oral contraceptive pills and smokingare some important risk factors for ovarian cancer (Jones et al., 2010. Morch, Lokkegard,Andreasen, Kruger-Kjearr, and Lidegaard (2009) concluded that combined hormone therapy(types of regimes, routes of administration, progestin types, doses amount, and length of use)and estrogen therapy have increased the risk of ovarian cancer. Abdominal bloating,mysterious weight gain or weight loss, changes in bowel system, changes in the monthlycycle, tiredness, backache are the main symptoms of ovarian cancer (Jones et al., 2010).3:0 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in Australia and USA3:1 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in United States of America (USA)The research conducted by American Cancer Society stated that 21,550 new cases ofepithelial ovarian cancer and 14,600 deaths related to ovarian cancer in 2009 (Lengyel,2010). The overall rate was 16.2 per 100,000 and the medium age of ovarian cancer was 60 inUSA (Arab et al., 2010). Arab et al. (2010) concluded that life expectancy is higher in USAso the medium age for ovarian cancer in USA is higher than other parts of world. “The 5-yearsurvival rate for patients with ovarian cancer is only 35%” (Su et al., 2012, p. 1).
23.2 Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer in AustraliaIn 2006, ovarian cancer is the ninth most common type of cancer in Australia, 1226 caseswere detected (Jones et al., 2010). Most ovarian cancer is developed at the age of 50 whereas64 is the median age of ovarian cancer among Australian women. Almost 15% of deadlyovarian carcinoma developed with the inheritance of a muted gene (Jones et al., 2010).Cancer Australia (2018) stated that the chances of survival among Australian women withovarian (2009-13) were 44.4%. The prevalence of ovarian cancer was 3,980 at the end of2012. The number of deaths had reached 460 to 960 (1968-2015) from ovarian cancer inAustralia (Cancer Australia, 2018).FactorsNumber of percentageOvarian cancer diagnosed in 20181613 femalesEstimated number of death from ovarian cancer1069 femalesChances of surviving with ovarian cancer for at least 5years44.4%People living with ovarian cancer in 20123,980 femalesTable: Ovarian cancer statistics in AustraliaSource: Australian Government – Cancer Australia (2018)4:0 Prevention and treatment of Ovarian CancerOvarian cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy,follow-up with Dr (Cancer Australia, 2018). The role of surgery and chemotherapy arehighlighted below.4:1 SurgeryThe treatment of ovarian cancer relies on the stage of diseases, the severity of disease, andlocation of cancer (Cancer Australia, 2018). Surgery is an initial treatment of ovarian cancerwhen most of the cancer cell, tissues, and organs are removed as much as possible, followedby chemotherapy. Finch et al. (2009) found that surgery has a significant impact on thetreatment of ovarian cancer. 127 women who carry mutation BCRA1 or BCRA2 genes intheir ovaries and fallopian tubes were surveyed (Finch et al., 2009). It was found that the riskof ovarian cancer was 55% prior to surgery and it dropped down to 11% after surgery (Finchet al., 2009). The early stage of ovarian cancer is generally removed laparoscopy, it involves
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