Research Paper on Statistical Methods

Added on - 03 May 2020

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Chapter: 1Paper ReviewContents1.1Introduction to the article.............................................................................................................11.2Sample used in the study.............................................................................................................11.3Selection of research methodology..............................................................................................21.4Review of result and discussion...................................................................................................41.5Alternative techniques for the analysis.......................................................................................71.5.1Using Linear Discriminant Analysis.......................................................................................71.5.2Using logistic regression.......................................................................................................71.5.3ANOVA and t test.................................................................................................................81.1Introduction to the articleThe main of the current research is to analyze the paper by(Yoshihama & Horrock 2003)on thebasis of the statistical methods used in the paper. Also an alternative analysis which can be usedfor such analysis will be proposed at the end of the research paper. There can be differenttechniques which can be used for the same analysis. The choice of techniques differs on the basisof collected data, the aims and objectives of the research and also on individual preferences oftechniques. In this research also an alternative techniques for the analysis of data will bepresented(Rajasekar et al. 2013; Cierniak & Reimann 2011).The use of survival analysis for theresearch related to trauma is not very common. Most of the previous researchers have used eithetthe chi square test or theCox regression where the covariates is not time variant.
This research paper has been divided into different sections. In the first section the review aboutthe data collection and the sample included in the study has been analyzed;followed by theresearch methodology used in the research. After the review of the research methodology, in thethird sectiontheresults from theselected articlecurrentstudyhave been reviewed. On the basisof the research methodology and the results from the data analysis, alternative techniques for thedata analysis have been proposed in the fourth section. Major limitations of the selected paperhave also been discussed before proposing the alternative techniques.1.2Sample used in the studyAs per theselectedarticle,in the selected paperprimary data was collected among the Japanesewomen who were either migrated from Japan to United States or Japanese women born in UnitedStates.In other words the target population of the study was the Japanese women living inUnited Kingdom. It has been mentioned in the given article that the final sample sizeused in thestudywas only 211. Even though the survey was sent to 407respondents, only 56 % of themresponded. This shows that the response rate was above 50 %. However the response rate couldhave increased if the respondents were given some rewards for providing information(Daniel2011; Battaligia 2011). In this case the respondents were given $20 each for filling therespondent’s sheet.Similarly aAnother reason for the low response rate is may be because the Japanese women donot want to reveal their partnerviolenceby their intimate partner. Authors of the study hasmaintained the privacy of the respondents in the research , however some female do not want toreveal, that is why the some of them do not respond.According to the articleto select thewomen for the sample introductory letter was sent totheirhouses. Also the screening telephonecall was also conducted to identify the eligibility of the women.For the sample selection therandom sampling was used. In case of random sampling each element in the population has sameprobability of being selected in the sample. On the other hand in case of non-random samplingthe probability of being selected in the sample differs for each element(Teddlie & Yu 2007).
In terms of the age of the respondents, only the Japanese women between the age group 18 and49 years were taken into consideration. Since most of the partner violence is faced by thefemales in this age group, this group has been selected. Even the appropriate age group wasselected for the study; sample was restricted to specific ethnic group. In this case only theJapanese women were included in the sample set. If sample from other ethnic group was alsoselected for the study it would have been easier to generalize the results. So the research can beimproved in terms of the sample selection and also the sample size can be increased.1.3Selection of research methodologyIn this section the selection of the research methodology by the authors in the selected researchpaper has been discussed.Use of survival analysisAs discussed in the previous section the paper was aimed to examine the relationship betweenposttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the intimate partner violence. Authors tried to study thetime taken for the PTSD (an event), so survival analysis was one of the most appropriatetechniques. In case of the survival analysis correctly identifying the target population andcollecting unbiased data from that population is the most important challenge. In this caseauthors were able to identify and collect data from appropriate population which makes thisresearch paper more important in the existing literature(Indrayan & Bansal n.d.; SABR et al.2013).There are mainly three possibilities related to data which can be used in the survival analysis.The first observation group is the one where the event occurred in the given time period or theexamination time period. For the current research paper it is in the age group of 18-49 wherethere PTSD. The second possibility is related to the respondents being dropped from the study inthe given time period or in certain age group. Finally the third possibility is where the selectedevent do not occur. This is also known as the censored observation. Censoring of the observationoccurs when the researcher have only some information about the selected event’s time, howeverthe exact time of the event is unknown. There may be different reasons behind censoring such as
selected person’s withdrawal from the event, selected subject not experiencing the eventetc(SABR et al. 2013; Monem A Mohammed 2014).In case of survival analysis majorly three functions can be presented:a)Probability of the selected subject’s survival after the given time tb)Hazard function h(t), ( it is the rate at which the event occurs, given the condition that thethere are no previous eventsc)Cumulative Incidence function (CIF) – In survival analysis it will be 1 minus survivalfunctionUse of SAS for survival analysisFor the selected research paper authors have used SAS to analyze the data using the survivalanalysis technique. Cox proportional hazard models were used by the authors to analyze the data.Since the Cox regression was used in the research, certain assumptions need to be fulfilled. TheCox regression assumes that the independent variables are in the non-parametric form. Howeverit allows the independent function to take any form as long as it is related to survivalfunction(Lanfranchi et al. 2010; George et al. 2014).Apart from Cox regression there are some other methods which are used for survival analysis.One of the methods is the Kaplan –Meirer survival method which is mostly used in case of timeto event analysis. This method is also non-parametric and this method is mostly used indescribing the survivorship of the selected population.On the other and the Cox regression survival method is considered to be a parametric model.This method is mostly used in those cases where the research is aimed to find the relationshipbetween different covariates. The outcome of the survival analysis is the time to some selectedevent. Using the survival analysis one can estimate the distribution of the outcome variable andexamines the effect of the independent variable on this distribution.There are two different ways to visualize the change of an event. The first one is the CIF and thevalue of CIF at certain age t indicates the probability that the selected event occurs before timeperiod t or at t. Another similar method is to use the survivor function. In the selected paper
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