Personality in Psychology Assignment

Added on - 10 May 2020

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Personality in Psychology1Name:Lecturer:Course:Date of Submission:Personality in PsychologyQuestion 1: Idiographic and the nomothetic approaches to the study of PsychologyScholars of personality fall into two main categories, those that patronize the idiographicschool of thought and the nomothetic. Proponents of the idiographic approach hold the view thatcertain traits are held uniquely by one individual and for this reason; it is not possible to comparepeople like for like. The nomothetic approach on the other hand studies traits that are assumed tohave similar psychological impacts for everyone (Beltz et al., 2016).The distinctive feature of these approaches could be the natural sciences and the socialsciences. Natural science is known to produce laws and can be equated to the nomotheticapproach while natural sciences whose main pre-occupation is interpretation of laws iscomparable to the idiographic approach. Both of these approaches are similar in the sense thatthey both seek to understand the personality traits in individuals.Question 2: reliability and validityIn research, reliability and validity are used together to refer the level to which the toolsof research ensure credible data. However, reliability applies to the capacity of a tool of researchto obtain the same results when used severally on the same case or phenomenon (Hellen andSmith, 2015). As such, a reliable tool of research should not vary the scores of research overtime.Validity on the other hand is the extent to which a tool of research obtains a score thatrepresents the variable they are intended to measure. One of the ways of gauging validity is themeasure of reliability. When a tool passes the test-retest reliability, then it is considered to bevalid. Both these terms, therefore, are used to deduce the extent to which tools of research canproduce credible results.Question 3: Should intelligence be considered as a personality trait?The debate as to whether intelligence is a personality trait has dominated academic cyclesover the years; those that disagree hold the view that since it is a cognitive process, it cannot be apersonality trait (Di Fabio, 2016). However, a second school of thought opines that the
Personality in Psychology2distinction between what is cognitive and what is not is vague. They base their argument on thefact that all personality traits have cognitive attributes.Intelligence has been tested by IQ tests and persons of a cross section of personality traitshave been found to score high on this test. This is because intelligence is an intrinsic ability thatprepares an individual to make judgment in various situations. In certain circumstances,intelligence can influence the personality of an individual. For example, a highly intelligentperson may take precaution when being rushed into a lucrative business deal. However, suchtraits may only be visible when crucial decisions have to be made and as such, intelligenceshould not be categorized as a personality trait.Question 4: Methods of reducing response setsResponse sets are scenarios where the respondents respond to questions in a way toportray the respondent in a certain light. The results of the survey in such cases do not portraythe respondent’s actual behavoiur or feelings. To check this bias, instructors can either warn therespondents against inaccurate responses or they could request honesty. They could also askthem to take the test in a short time frame such that they only record their first thoughts (Johnsonand Wythe, 2013).Instructors could also employ the use of multiple questions while assessing the sameattribute. A dishonest respondent will be detected easily because he/she is likely to average thepositive and negative responses in a deliberate move to balance the answers. “Trick” questionscan be applied by an instructor especially multiple choice questions that contain no right answer.This technique may be used to probe earlier responses.Question 5: Is Freudian Theory a good theory?Sigmund Freud is famous for his psychoanalytic theory of personality development. Inhis thoughts, personality is formed through conflict among the fundamental structures of id, egoand superego that exist in the mind of man. Freud postulated ideas about dreams stating that theyserve to preserve sleep (Alexander and Hanns, 2017). This, according to Freud, happens byrepressing as fulfilled wishes that could awaken the dreamer. He saw dreams as products of thedaily occurrences and thoughts of man. Freud also promoted views that portrayed femininity asinferior to the male through such concepts as the Oedipus complex (Flemming, 2016). It is agood theory for study.Although Freudian thinking is still part of academic discourse, it seems to have beenovertaken by modern understanding of concepts. The science about dreams has been studiedfurther and there is proof that not all dreams are as a result of the thought processes ofindividuals. Some people have had premonitions through their dreams about future events.Contemporary thinking has also proven that the development of female sexuality was a defensiveresponse that was based on the cultural structures during the Freudian era as opposed to the
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