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Running head: PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS1Pharmacology and TherapeuticsStudent’s NameUniversity Affiliation
PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS2IntroductionThis essay discusses the case of Mr. Smith, a 76-year old Caucasian who was admitted inhospital two times on different accounts. During the first admission, the client had complained ofbruises around the naval region, but the physicist dismissed the claims saying that the conditionwas normal for people on Warfarin (anticoagulant or blood thinner). The doctor assumed that thepatient had diverticulitis; a condition that occurs when pouches or the diverticula form on thecolon walls). A CT scan was done and showed that the patient had abdominal bleeding thuscalling for admission. In the following morning, MR. Smith found more bruises around theabdomen extending to his back and was prescribed Heparin to prevent blood clotting.On a different account; that is a week after the first admission, the client was readmittedback in a local hospital on account that he had heart and lung diseases. These conditions manifestin the first admission of the patient where it was noted that he had a history of Asthma andchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following these conditions, a CT imaging wasdone and showed fluids surrounding the lungs and heart. The previous history revealed that thepatient had aortic valve replacement and lung diseases. On the third day, the patient complainedof discomfort in the chest and throat, and Troponin levels indicated that he had a heart attack butno heart damage. Ultimately, he was recommended other medication such as Frusemide andCephaxelin to eliminate the fluid build up in the lungs and heart. Specifically, this essay willfocus on the use of multiple medications for patients with heart and lung diseases and abdominalbleeding. It will also focus on parameters for medication and tests dosage for differentmedications, their side effects, precautions and diagnostics.
PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS3Bruises around the Naval RegionBruises are discolouration or tenderness of the skin due to blood leakage as a result ofblood vessel injury (Garfinkel and Mangin, 2010). They are prevalent among the adults sincetheir skin, and blood vessels tend to become thinner with ageing and also due to increased use ofmedications that affect the blood clotting agents. The use of asthma medications can lead toincreased bruising. According to Khan et al., (2012) anticoagulants or blood thinners,particularly Warfarin and heparin can cause severe bruising. Bruising around the abdomen canbe an indication of internal bleeding. Although bruising is a minor issue that does not call for aformal medical diagnosis, bruises in some parts of the body would require a number of bloodtests or a computed tomography (CT) scan if the region of the bruise is hard (Khan et al., 2012).Eventually, the doctor dismisses Mr. Smiths’ complain of bruises around the naval region on theaccount that he is on Warfarin medication. The formal results then showed that the patient hadabdominal bleeding. Lawrence et al., (2010) asserts that internal bleeding can cause shock, organfailure or death. In cases where there is uncontrolled bleeding in the abdomen, the body may losea lot of RBCs thus hindering supply of oxygen in the body.Diagnosis of Abdominal BleedingDiagnosis can be done by a gastroenterologist, a primary care officer or an emergencyroom physician (Ng et al., 2013). If the abdominal bleeding is suspected, a doctor can conduct ablood test or CT imaging to confirm the diagnosis. Laboratory tests are commonly used indiagnosing internal bleeding. As Ng et al., (2013) asserts, a blood test is done to confirminfection or blood count, where the test showing a high white blood cell count is an indication ofinfection. The tests can also reveal the presence of anaemia or inflammation.
PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS4A CT scan is another commonly used method to diagnose abdominal bleeding.According to the World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO), the tomography scan offersbenefits of evaluating bowel and mesentery with a sensitivity of 67% to 97% and specificity of76% to 100%. Computed tomography findings show bowel wall thickening, periodic fatstranding, free fluid and an abscess (Robertson et al., 2014). Moreover, an inflamed pouch canshow overhead sign where an iodinated contrast represents an overhead configuration at the footof the inflamed pouch. The primary reason why the scan will show a thick bowel wall is thatwhen inflammation occurs, free air, as well as abscess formation will be present. However,correct diagnosis of the bleeding ranges from 60 to 97% as per the facility evaluated. As of late,a vast number of physicians order a CT scan over Barium enema, which is usually ordered whenthe diagnosis from the CT scan is not conclusive (Walker and Harris et al., 2017). Afterperforming an abdominal CT scan from the patient, the result showed that Mr. Smith had aninternal bleeding and needed to be admitted. Earlier on, the doctor had suspected diverticulosisand prescribed three medications; Amoxicillin 500mg, Movical to help with constipation, andEndone 2.5 mg to relieve pain.Medications for internal bleeding1. AmoxicillinThis is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. Doctors prescribe amoxicillin totreat different infections such as urinary tract infection, lungs, stomach and skin infections. It isimportant to finish a prescribed medication even if a person feels better in the course of takingthe drug. Although amoxicillin could interfere with some birth control pills for the women,elderly adults like the case of Mr. Smith needs to take a lower dosage of the drug. Also using the