Pharmacology Assignment on Peptic Ulcer
Added on - 01 May 2020
Running head: PHARMACOLOGY ASSIGNMENTDrug scheme for Stomach UlcerName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1PHARMACOLOGY ASSIGNMENTGastric ulcers or stomach ulcers occur in the form of painful sores in the inner lining ofthe stomach. They are non-malignant, mucosal lesions in the stomach. Pepsin and gastric acidsplay important pathogenic roles in their occurrence. Corrosive action of hydrochloric acid andpepsin on the mucosa of upper gastrointestinal tract leads to the formation of such ulcers(Salama, Hartung and Müller 2013). The diameter of these ulcers ranges between 3 mm toseveral centimetres. The corrosive action reduces the thickness of mucus layer that protects thestomach from digestive juices. This provides an opportunity to the digestive acids to destroy thetissues lining the stomach (Figure 1).About 500,000 new cases of stomach ulcer occur every each year. The mortality rates forpeptic ulcer in Australia are estimated to be around 2.1 per 100,000 individuals. Men are twicemore likely to get affected by gastric ulcer than women (Barazandeh et al. 2012).Excess secretion of gastric juice is one of the contributing factors. The other major factoris decreased defence of the mucosa against gastric acid. Integrity of the upper gastrointestinaltract depends upon the balance between several hostile factors such asHelicobacter pylori,gastric acid, pepsin, NSAIDs and other protective factors like mucus, prostaglandins,bicarbonate, and flow of blood to the gastrointestinal mucosa.H. pyloriare spiral bacteria that attack the stomach lining. They lead to the production ofharsh, acidic environment in the stomach by penetrating the stomach lining. These bacteriagenerally spread through saliva and faecal contamination of food and water. Genes also play arole in the incidence of the disease. First degree relatives are thrice more likely to get infected.20-50% patients with gastric ulcer report positive family histories. Increased incidence of thedisease cause due toH.pyloriinfection is observed among people with O positive blood group.
2PHARMACOLOGY ASSIGNMENTFigure 1- Visual representation of stomach ulcerSource-(dhsgi.com, 2017)Most common symptoms of gastric ulcer are abdominal discomfort, nausea and pain. Thepain is generally located in the epigastrium and does not radiate. The most commonly useddiagnostic test to evaluate stomach ulcer is upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is another accurate method used to diagnose stomachulcers. Histological examination ofH.pyloriwith standard eosin and hematoxylin staining servesas an excellent diagnostic technique.The drugs that are used in treatment of stomach ulcers either reduce intragastric acidity orpromote mucosal defence and eradicate infection byH.pylori. The commonly used drugs are: