Pharmacology Assignment - Osteoarthritis

Added on - 15 Mar 2020

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Running head: PHARMACOLOGY1PharmacologyStudent’s NameDate of Submission
PHARMACOLOGY21.Osteoarthritis is a health condition involving the disease in the joints which affect verymany people globally with the majority affected being the old people. This condition might leadto chronic disability depending on its severity to particular individuals (Ayhan et al., 2014). Thecartilage is a tissue which is compressive and viscoelastic due to its extracellular matrix and it islargely composed of type 2 collagen and proteoglycans. Under normal conditions, theextracellular matrix undergoes remodeling such that low degradative and synthetic enzymesactivities are placed at a balance leading to the maintenance of the cartilage volume. In theosteoarthritis condition, these enzymes are overexpressed altering the normal balance of cartilagevolume. This, in turn, favors cartilage degradation by enzymes leading to the destruction ofproteoglycans and collagen in the matrix tissues. In other cases, osteoarthritis presents as adegenerative disorder characterized by the biochemical degradation of hyaline a cartilage foundin the synovial joints. This condition is associated with several clinical presentations whichinclude: aching pain, low level of movement, the stiffness of the joints, and when one is restingespecially in the morning hours. The etiology of osteoarthritis makes it possible to make aclassification of the factors that influence the development of this condition (Silverwood et al.,2015). These include applying stress to the cartilage, anatomical abnormalities, obesity, aberrantphysiology of the cartilage, advanced age, trauma, metabolic disorders, inflammation and geneticpredisposition among others. This eventually results in the stimulation of both biophysical aswell as biochemical alterations which eventually break down the cartilage tissues in the joints(Jevsevar et al., 2013). The fact that the cartilage is a dynamic and not a static tissue is importantin osteoarthritis pathophysiology because it explains the need for continued balance betweencartilage synthesis and breakdown under controlled conditions.2
PHARMACOLOGY32.Paracetamol is an over-the-counter medication which is commonly used as an analgesicand antipyretic drug. This drug works by acting as a prodrug, where it donates a moiety ofendogenous cannabiomimetric leading to the activation of cannabinoid receptors in the brain.However, paracetamol does not have anti-inflammatory activities, raising concerns over itseffectiveness in the treatment of osteoarthritis (Lee et al., 2017). Considering its adverse effectprofile, paracetamol is used as a first line agent in managing osteoarthritis. However, being aweak analgesic, this drug can only be used in the treatment and management of mild andmoderate conditions of the cartilages. The most commonly recommended oral dosage is in theconcentrations of 500mg three times a day. It is also worth noting that paracetamol has analgesicceiling effects just as the nucleoside steroids and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. However, in orderfor this drug to offer more effects, it needs to be combined with other drugs like codeine toachieve effective osteoarthritis effects (Kamath, 2014).3.Panadol® has so many products which help to meet the varied needs of people withvaried age differences to alleviate pain. It is based on paracetamol medications which relievepain and fever. Panadol® comes in different forms such as the gel caps which are easy toswallow as well as the suppositories which are used by people suffering from vomiting or thosewith problems in taking oral medications. Panadol® has some sustained caplets, one layer whichis released quickly, and a second layer which is released slowly for prolonged relief from pain.Basically, Panadol® has ingredients of 500mg paracetamol, maximum dosage of eight tabletseach day, regular release, adult dosage of one to two tablets every six hours using water, andcommonly used for conditions such as muscular aches, backache, migraine, period pain, arthritis,3
PHARMACOLOGY4headache and tooth pain among others. Panadol Osteo is a bi-layer tablet which contains anintermediate and sustained release doses that help in the management of osteoarthritis (Graudins,2014). Panadol Osteo offers a long-lasting and relief from joint pain thus being termed as a goodchoice to maintain a high dose of paracetamol at regular levels, instead of taking many tablets asin the usual paracetamol tablets. Panadol Osteo dosage consists of three daily doses which lastfor up to eight hours, hence a good choice for alleviating pain. Panadol Osteo has ingredients of665mg of paracetamol, a sustained dose release, adult dosage of two caplets swallowed withwater every six to eight hours, used to treat various conditions such as persistent pain which iscommon in osteoarthritis, and the maximum dose is usually six caplets per day (Huxhagen,2017). Mrs. F can thus take Panadol Osteo because it has a sustained release, specific forosteoarthritis and has a maximum dosage of fewer caplets as compared to Panadol®.4.Voltaren is also known as diclofenac, and it is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory steroidwhich functions by lowering the substances in the body which are responsible for causing pain.This drug is used to treat mild and moderate symptoms of osteoarthritis. However, it is notadvisable to take Voltaren if someone is allergic to either aspirin or any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is also reported that in older adults just as Mrs. F, Voltaren can causeinternal intestinal bleeding without any warning, a condition which can be fatal. Long-term useof Voltaren and in high doses can also cause stroke and heart attack.The mechanism of action is that Voltaren has anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic, andantipyretic effects. For these effects to occur, this drug specifically inhibits the prostaglandins, aprocess which is mediated by the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzyme (which are twotypes). Cyclooxygenase 1 carries out housekeeping roles like mediation of platelet functions,4
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