Pharmacy Assignment Pharmacy Practice
Added on - 29 Apr 2020
Running head: PHARMACY PRACTICEChallenges for pharmacy professionals in large hospital systemsName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1PHARMACY PRACTICEAbstractThe primary responsibility of health care managers is fostering an environment, which willprovide quality and necessary health care interventions to patients at maximum profit. They areinvolved in determining health budgets, ordering and receiving supplies, administering benefitsand payrolls, and distributing regular communication among the hospital authorities and theirpatients. They work by keeping up with relevant health care policies and laws, technologies andstandards. The pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers also have the responsibility ofrepresenting their healthcare organization at external meetings, such as investor gatherings andcommunity forums. In order to determine the health care needs, they should take medicaldecisions that will affect the finances of their hospital facilities. However, there are severalchallenges and barriers that they face during implementation of their duties. Their duties varyaccording to the title and function of the healthcare facilities. This report will aim to investigatethe several challenges that arise in health sector by using secondary data sources. It will use aliterature review to identify the challenges and will finally recommend measures that can beadopted by them to ensure that patients receive necessary services and the costs are minimized.
2PHARMACY PRACTICEIntroductionQuality management is a critical requirement across all healthcare organizations.Building patient centric quality management is considered of utmost importance. Several toolsand standards are imposed by healthcare managers to achieve quality management. The primaryrole of pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers is to provide high quality healthcare,while ensuring that the patient is taken care of (Lee et al., 2012). The managers are responsiblefor ensuring that the regulations and processes are being adhered to. They keep a check onadaptation of the standards and instill the processes into the healthcare setting, with the aim ofassuring patient safety and satisfaction. The job of a healthcare manager is undoubtedlydemanding and difficult (Batalden et al., 2015). The topic is essential in IT industry owing to thefact that healthcare management is one of the fastest growing industries. The need forcomprehensive healthcare practices is ever-increasing due to population explosion anddevelopment in science.Thus, the practices involved in healthcare management need to be continuously improvedto satisfy the ever-increasing market. With rise in health expenses and increase in competition,managers must be prepared to effectively lead the hospital settings. Managers combine a soundunderstanding of healthcare system with business expertise and work toward increasingeffectiveness and efficiency. Rapid reforms and innovation have made delivery of quality carecentral to hospital management (Kirkpatrick et al., 2013). This can be accounted for the fact thatthe federal government and the patients expect delivery of results by skilled managementprofessionals.
3PHARMACY PRACTICEHowever, the managers need to overcome several challenges to improve patient care andmaintain fiscal responsibility.This report will therefore illustrate on the different challengesfaced by pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers in hospital settings. The report willfocus on a literature review to illustrate the several challenges faced by healthcare managersacross large hospitals.Literature reviewA particular study aimed to formally evaluate the healthcare programs to understand thechallenges that occur in healthcare settings while improving care quality. The study further triedto identify the ways by which the challenges could be addressed. Lessons from the HealthFoundation’s improvement programmes were integrated with relevant literature. Several reportswere read and carefully analysed. NVivo software was used to undertake the analysis. This wasfollowed by conduction of a narrative review of the organizational factors that would likelyhinder efforts of improvement. The analysis helped in the identification of 10 key challenges thatwere related to improvement interventions and professional context. The fundamental challengeidentified was failure to convince people that there was a need to address the real problem. Whileplanning and designing interventions, the healthcare managers must carefully target the problemsthat are more likely to be accepted across the hospital setting. The study identified otherchallenges at the planning stage, which included contest of the chosen interventions due to lackof sufficient evidence, poor data collection and lack of adequate monitoring, lack of expertiseand inadequate financial support, managerial skills and infrastructure. The findings also providedevidence that lack of work culture, inadequate organizational capacity can create emotionalexhaustion create adverse outcomes. Lack of engagement of staff and failure to overcome lack of
4PHARMACY PRACTICEownership and low leadership skills were also recognized by the study as one of the biggestchallenges (Dixon-Woods, McNicol & Martin, 2012).Another study was conducted to identify the roles of pharmacists in pharmacogenomicsimplementation. The specific resources and responsibilities needed for pharmacy professionals toexecute their roles had not yet been defined. The study identified the roles of pharmacyprofessionals by summarizing the results obtained from a clopidogrel-CYP2C19pilot project.The project involved administration of antiplatelet therapies for patients who had undergonepercutaneous coronary intervention and stent placement. More than 1000 patients weregenotyped. The results revealed the essential roles of pharmacy professionals. These roles andresponsibilities included expertise in developing electronic medical records and clinical decisionsupport system (pharmacy informatics), implementing medication safety, adhering to medicationregulations and policies, developing educational strategies and logistically using all drug relatedinformation and database management approaches in patient care centres. Pharmacyprofessionals are also involved in solving ethical issues related to patient care. The resultssuggested that 14 pharmacists were involved in the program during the first 2 years of study andneeded to develop an expertise in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics and informatics toachieve holistic patient care (Owusu‐Obeng et al., 2014).The role of healthcare managers in implementation of innovative healthcare wasdemonstrated by another study. The study results proved that these managers play a key role inimplementing healthcare innovation. The gap that existed between practice and effective careevidences was attributed to poor implementation of healthcare innovations. The study suggestedthat managers are involved in influencing healthcare innovation implementation by activelysynthesizing and diffusing information, mediating between daily activities and strategies, and
5PHARMACY PRACTICEselling the innovations to important stakeholders. It emphasized on the fact that teamworkdesigns are essential for the functioning of healthcare organizations. It showed that healthcaremanagers are entitled with the responsibility of overseeing team initiatives. This enhances theirpotential to influence implementation of innovative techniques (Birken, Lee & Weiner, 2012).Another study attempted to evaluate the attitude, knowledge, and proficiency ofpharmacy graduates in the practice of evidence based medicine. Pre and post survey studies andskill tests were conducted among the sample with the help of a valid questionnaire with the aimof comprehending the transformation in the knowledge of pharmacy professionals during theirtransition to a hospital setting. The skills gained by pharmacy undergraduates were assessed andstatistically analysed. A series of Problem Based Learning were conducted followed byadministration of pre and post-test and the competencies were assessed. On analysis of the datausing IBM SPSS v20.0 ANCOVA software, it was found that majority of the students couldformulate PICO questions and apply them in the healthcare setting after taking the pharmacycourse. One of the major challenges identified was the lack of adequate role models who wouldpromote the culture of evidence based practice on the hospital wards. A change in the behaviorof senior pharmacists on the use of EBP methods was needed to create a significant impact in theminds of junior pharmacy professionals that would in turn improve the quality of patient care innear future. Another challenge that pharmacy professionals face is the lack of exposure topharmacy informatics. This weakens their approach to searching for drug information. Moreover,they are often unable to handle statistical information in large hospital settings (Abu-Gharbieh etal., 2015).A systematic content analysis was performed to identify the challenges and opportunitiesin social pharmacy and pharmacy practice. Narrowly focused pharmacy services, lack of