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PHIL 226 - Biomedical Ethics

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: PHIL 226PHIL 226Name of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1PHIL 226Milgram Obedience Experiment from the perspectives of competing theories of evilThere was a famous study that was being researched by a very famous person namedMilgram in the year, 1963. There were many experiments which were being performed in orderto see that there is conflict between factors that is obedience to the authority and personalconscience. In order to prove this, Stanley Milgram carried out the experiment which wasfocused mainly on the above statement on conflict between the obedience to authority andpersonal conscience (Sampson 2015).He has implemented a number of experiments which was from the World War II. In thewar there was an instance that the persons who was being tried in the criminal court of law, andwhich gave a common excuse that they were following the orders of their superiors. In relationto this, Stanley Milgram tried to look through in his experiment that how far a person will go inorder to follow instruction and what role does personal conscience play in this scenario.The experiment started in July, 1961, the year in which the trial of Adolf EichmannJerusalem was carried out. Milgram wanted to know that whether Eichmann was really followingorders or not. So he wanted to go through and realize from the experiment that how far a persongo to follow the orders from their superiors (Parmar 2017).The Germans were known for their obedience towards their seniors or authority. Thus toperform his experiment he took the Germans as they were very obedient towards their figuresthat are in authority. In this regard he also gave a newspaper advertisement so as to get maleparticipants. The participants were chosen as the teacher so that they understand how far a personwill go to obey the order of the authority figures. He wanted to know the common people who
2PHIL 226can be influenced in such a way that they go to a very far extent so as to give pain to others forobeying orders (Reicher, Haslam and Miller 2014).The Stanford Prison experiment (SPE) from the perspectives of competing theories of evilIt is one of the most renowned or the most famous study which was being carried out byStanford in the years of the history in the field of psychology. Stanford Prison has experimentedon the human nature and human psychology in relation to evil. He studied that fact that if aperson faces an abusive situation then what will be the instant reaction of that person and does heforget the manners and bindings in that particular situation (Gerrig et al. 2105).Then Stanford Prison performed the experiment on the famous study on the history of thesubject psychology. The result of the above experiment was horrifying since it has drawnsweeping conclusions about the human nature and the evolution on the concept of evil. He hasfurther experimented that the power that a bad or an abusive situation has, so that it is able toinduce or indulge the good people in committing or doing evil.In particular, Phil Zimbarid performed the above study so that they are able to show thatthere is a strong situational force which has an overriding effect on the personality of the moraland ethical values therefore the latter will be of small or less count. He claimed that when aperson is put into a situation where he has the power to have control over others like that theguards in the prison have on the prisoners, and this will be the Act which is abusive in a way(Zimbardo, Breckenridge and Moghaddam 2015).Further, the results of the experiment were applied to the prisoner. The limitations of thestudy were that the size was very small and the improper way the experiment was conducted.Closer examination was conducted and it revealed the fact that the adequate test was conducted
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