Marine Animal Diversity & Feeding

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PRACTICAL1MarineAnimalDiversity&Feeding
StrategiesOnlineVersion
3Aug2020
OBJECTIVES
Viewandappreciatethevastdiversityofmarineanimalsthrough“reef
cams”orotherlivestreamedunderwatercamerasrecordingmarine
ecosystemsinrealtime.
Examinetheadaptivefeedingstrategiesmarineanimalshaveusedto
persistinthemarineenvironment.
Scientificallydrawthemostintriguingmarineanimal,incorporating
notesfromthepracticalandyourownresearch.
2
BackgroundInformation
Marineecosystemsarevastlycomplexwithextraordinaryanimaldiversity.Oftheseanimals,
invertebrates(animalslackingabackbone)areamajorcomponentofoceanlifeandrepresent
morethan97%ofdescribedanimals.Thefirstvertebrates(animalswithabackbone)were
fishes,comprisingmorethanhalfthetotalnumberofvertebratespecies.Fishesareanextremely
diversegroupastheyhaveevolvedawiderangeofcharacteristicsandabilitiesallowingthem
tosurviveinnearlyallmarineenvironments.Theevolutionoflobe---finnedfishesresultedin
marinereptiles,mammalsandseabirds;afterfirstevolvingtoliveterrestrially,theyagain
evolvedtoreturntotheocean.WhileitisnotpossibletohaverepresentativesofALLmarine
animalsinthispracticalsession,ourintentionistobringawidevarietyofanimalsand
informationforyoutoexamineandtoseehowthesemarineorganismshavefoundsometruly
uniquewaysofadaptingandsurvivinginsometrulywondrousmarineenvironments.
Asdiverseasthemarineanimalsare,soaretheiradaptedfeedingstrategiesanddiets.Thereare
depositfeedersthatpassmud,sandorothersedimentintotheirmouthstofeedondetritus
afinelayerofbacteriaandorganicremainsofotheranimalsandplants.Manydepositfeeders
havespecialadaptationsforeatinginthismanner,suchasspecialfeedingappendagesshaped
asspoonstoshovelsedimenttotheirmouth.Anothercommonfeedingstrategyissuspension
feeding,inwhichanimalshavedevelopedawidearrayofmechanismsforcatchingplankton
andorganicmatterfromthewater,suchastrappingitinmucousordevelopingbrush---like
combs.Filterfeedersactivelyfiltersuspendedorganicmaterialfromthewaterbypumping
waterthroughfiltrationstructures.Inaddition,therearenumerouspredators.Somepredators
cancamouflageandwaitforpreytocometothem,haveadaptedtomovequicklyorhavespecial
venomorbodyparts(tentacles,teeth,hooks,stingersetc.)toincapacitatetheirprey.Thereare
alsomarineherbivoresthatfeedonplants,suchasthedugongwhicheatseagrassesandother
aquaticplants.
Pleaseusethefollowinglinkstoviewavarietyofmarinelifefromavarietyofmarine
ecosystems.Somewillbeinaquaria,andsomeareunderwatercameras‘livestreaming’from
theocean.Bemindfulsomecamerasonlyoperateduringtheirlocaldaylighttimesandmay
requireyoutocheckbackintheearlymorningorlateintheeveningifyou’rehereinAustralia.
Othercamerasshowhighlightfootageduring‘offscreen’time.Manyofthemalsohaveonline
fieldguidestohelpyouidentifytheanimalsobservedinthefootage:
1.TheNatureConservancyAustraliaReefCaminPortPhillipBay,Victoria,Australia
https://www.natureaustralia.org.au/what-we-do/our-priorities/oceans/ocean-
stories/reef-cam-underwater/
2.TheMontereyBayAquariumCoralReefCam,California,USA
https://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animals/live-cams/coral-reef-cam
3.CaliforniaAcademyofScienceReefLagoonCamandFieldGuide,California,USA
https://www.calacademy.org/explore-science/reef-lagoon-field-guide
3
4.TheNationalAquariumLiveStreams,Baltimore,MarylandUSA
https://aqua.org/explore/livestreams
*Note:youcanzoominontheselivecams!
5.CoralMorphologic-CoralCityCamera,Florida,USA
http://www.coralcitycamera.com/
*Note:followthemonInstagramforgreathighlightvideos:@coralcitycamera
6.GeorgiaAquariumIndo-PacificBarrierReefWebcam,Georgia,USA
https://www.georgiaaquarium.org/webcam/indo-pacific-barrier-reef/
*Note:viewtheGallerylinkbelowthecamformoredetailsonmarineanimals
ondisplay
7.CaymanReefCampoweredbyEXPLORE.org
https://explore.org/livecams/oceans/cayman-reef-cam
*Note:footagemaynotbelive,buthighlightfootagehasGREATclarityandthe
cameraispositionedatacleaningstation
Feelfreetofindadditionallivereefcamsfromothermarineecosystemsoraquariumsandadd
themtothelist!
Herearealistofsomeoftheorganismsyoumayencounter:
Sponges(phylumPorifera)
Jellyfish,Siphonophoresandcorals(phylumCnidaria)
Bivalves,snails,nudibranchs,seaslugs,octopus,squid,nautilus,cuttlefish
(phylumMollusca)
Seastars,sealilies,seacucumbers,seaurchins,sanddollars,brittlestarts
(phylumEchinodermata)
Crustaceans(phylumArthropoda)
Ray---finnedFishes(phylumChordata,infraclassTeleostei)
Sharksandrays(phylumChordata,subclassElasmobranchii)
Seasnakes(Chordata,classReptilia)
4
YourTask
1.Thispracticalisdesignedforstudentstoperusefootageofvariousmarineanimalgroups
atyourownpace.Thereisnosetorder,timeordayinwhichyoumustvisiteachsite,but
checkbackfrequently.Besuretowatchanyhighlightfootageofferedforspecialcritter
appearancesontheliveoceancams.

2.Ateachwebsite,theremaybeguidesandinformationsheets,videos,pictures,andhints
&tipsofthingstolookatordo.Makesureyougothrougheverythingandenjoyexploring!

3.Besuretohavethispracticalguidewithyouwhileviewingtheunderwatercamera
streams.Ifyoucompletethequestionsheetsbyhand,theywillneedtobescannedand
uploadedforcredittowardsyourpracticalreport.Ifyoudon’thaveaccesstoascanner,
manysmartphonescantakeclearimagesandconverttheminto.pdfswiththeuse
of(free)apps.
4.Aftervisitingalltheunderwatercamerastreams(andanyothersofyourchoosing),
selectoneoftheanimalsthatintriguesyoumostanddrawitscientificallyonaseparate
pieceofpaper(seeguideforhowtodoascientificdrawingbelow).Youwillneedthisto
completeQuestions2and3below.
Assessment:PracticalReport(5%)
YoumustsubmitapracticalreportthroughSafeAssignbymidnightMondayAugust10.
Yourreportshouldconsistthefollowing:
1.Adigitalcopyofyourquestionsheets(9marks).
2.Scientificdrawingwithobservations(3marks)oftheanimalthatintriguesyou.Writea
paragraphaboutwhatyoufoundmostinterestingabouttheanimal(3-4sentences;3
marks).
3.Researchintothespecificfeedingmechanismsoftheanimalyouchosetodrawfor
question2(8-10sentenceswithproperreferencingandAPAformatting:10marks).
Note:Plagiarismisnotaccepted.Pleaseciteyourstatementsusingprimaryliterature,
includingscholarlybooksandjournalarticles,andwhenpossibleavoidwebsitescompletely.
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