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Running head: PRE AND POST OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT1Pre and Post operative ManagementStudent’s NameUniversity Affiliation
PRE & POST OPERATIVE MANAGMENT2IntroductionPatients undergoing reconstruction of the breast after modified radical mastectomy(MRM) can expect to experience lifestyle changes following the surgery. MRM is a procedureinvolving the removal of an entire breast including all of its tissues (American Society ofAnaesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management, 2012). Historically, MRM was theknown main technique of treatment of breast cancer, and as the treatments have evolved, breastconservation has been one of the most commonly used methods. Still, mastectomy is a goodchoice for most people with breast cancer. During MRM, postoperative education is vital inhelping women cope with lifestyle changes as well as recover quickly following the surgery.Preoperative care is the care provided prior to a surgical operation while the opposite is careprovided after surgery (Blaudszun et al., 2012). According to research, surgical patient whobelieve that they did not receive adequate pre and post-operative education on managementexperience dissatisfaction after a surgery and had difficulties in understanding the changes theyencounter. The rationale of this essay is to discuss preoperative and postoperative managementfollowing a patient who is to undergo a bilateral total MRM and reconstruction of the breastcancer. Clients and patients will be used interchangeably throughout the essayContraindicationsThere are few indications to the MRM. For clients with metastatic illness, the primarymode of treatment is systemic therapy. Currently, MRM is not the primary care for people withmetastatic diseases (Chou et al., 2016). Other contraindications involve people who cannotreceive general anaesthesia.
PRE & POST OPERATIVE MANAGMENT3Preoperative EducationA patient with MRM encounters a life-changing event; hence it is critical to start theeducation process in advance, especially in ambulatory setting before the surgery. Education atthis time can help the client to begin the process as well as prepare for the life changes prior tohospitalisation rather than postoperative education while experiencing anxiety and pain whichcannot be helpful to the patient. Apart from the physician’s explanation of the diagnosis andprocedure, the client should have preoperative visits with clinicians to discuss the crucialinformation regarding the surgical process, what to expect during surgery or in the hospital, skillsto be learned, and equipments to be used, as well as the necessary resource (Macintyre et al.,2010). This kind of education can improve the patient’s outcome as well as gratification.However, when providing preoperative education, you should first assess what the client knowsand the information he/she wants to learn to ensure that education is individualised and themutual objectives can be set. It would also be wise to include the patient’s family or friends ineducation as shown plus based on clients’ preferences.Best PracticesAccording to Chou et al., (2016) there has been a heated discussion over the presence oflymph node dissection. However, modern indications for the first and second level of axillarydissections in people undergoing mastectomy include; local axillary recurrence, outside clinicaltrials, and failed mapping for sentinel lymph nodes biopsy among other indications. Clients needto be assessed for lymph node dissection regularly. It should be known that axillary dissectioncannot be of great help to people with favourable tumour characteristics, multiple comorbiditiesand the elderly.