Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcer

Added on - 03 Dec 2019

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Identifying the best practice in prevention andtreatment of pressure ulcer
Pressure ulcers also named asdecubitus ulcersorbedsores are basically regarded aslocalized injuries that affect the skin and underlying tissue over a bony prominence due topressure with a combination of shear and friction. They are mostly found in sacrum, heel,coccyx and hips (Pressure ulcers - what to ask your doctor,2013). Other than this, they alsoaffect the elbows, ankles, knee or even back of cranium. These ulcers are often found to betreatable if detected at an early stage. However, they can be difficult to treat in critically illpatients along with frail elders that are wheelchair users especially in cases where spineinjury is involved (Veredas, Mesa and Morente, 2009). High treatment issues are also foundin individuals who are immobile and also have a maximum probability of developing thepressure ulcers. From the statistical data released in recent years, out of 1.5 million nursinghome residents, about 1, 59, 000 suffered from the problem of pressure ulcers at any stage.Stage 2 ulcer is considered to be most common that accounts for nearly 50 percent of allpressure ulcers.Among them only 35 percent received a special wound care service that is inaccordance with the practices mentioned in the clinical guidelines. These kinds of ulcers are avery serious practice and a common medical ailment in nursing homes (Verelst, Jacques andet.al., 2012). It is also a critical public health problem as it poses a financial burden on thehealth care system and also deteriorates the overall quality of physical life of patient as wellas the care givers. Hence there is a need to identify the best practices that are involved inprevention and treatment of pressure ulcer. The given essay revolves around the topic ofpressure ulcer. It would start with description about pressure ulcer, the underlying issuesinvolved followed by suggestion of prevention and treatment measure for the same (Cork,2007). The essay would end with a concluding paragraph which is a summary of key pointsmentioned in the paragraphs along with identification of best practice in prevention andtreatment of pressure ulcer.A pressure ulcer is considered as a damage that occurs on the skin as well asunderlying tissue. It is basically caused by three main things i.e. pressure which is the weightof body that presses down on the skin. Second reason is sheer, when the layers of skin areforced to slide over each other especially when transferring individuals to and fro the wheelchair. Thirdly there is a presence of friction which happens when rubbing of skin is involved.Various signs and symptoms are associated with formation of pressure ulcers. First signhappens when the skin of the ulcer area gets discolored. It may get worse progressively thatmight finally lead to an open wound development (Williams, 2011). Any individual is pronetowards the progress of pressure ulcer but some have more chances for development as1
compared to others. This is inclusive of the people who face problems in moving andchanging positions without any help; critically ill patients and those undergoing surgery. It isalso prevalent in those individuals that have a past history of ulcers, poor dietary regimes,older people with damaged spinal cord who cannot move or feel their bottom and legs etc(Huang,Chenand Xu, 2013). In this respect, the key to prevention is that the healthcareprofessional must assess if the individual is at any risk of ulcer development. This wouldinvolve for the healthcare professional to ask questions followed by examination of body tocheck the possible signs of ulcers.The prevention of pressure ulcers is a must as it is found to develop quickly in someindividuals who are unable to move for a short while of time sometimes even within an hour.In absence of sufficient care pressure ulcer can sometimes become a serious problem. Theulcers can not only damage the skin, underlying issue but can also spread to other areas aswell thereby making the treatment a difficult task. They also take a long time to heal andsometimes can become life threatening. At times, they also lead to blood poisoning orinfections in bone which results in further bodily ailments (Sussman and Jensen, 2007).In order to prevent the pressure ulcer, many measures are suggested. It can be reducedby relieving the pressure on areas that are vulnerable to ulcers. In this respect, the major stepis caring for intact or normal skin in the best possible manner. This involves for washing theskin with warm water and a mild soap so as to reduce any irritation and dryness that isobserved in the body (Pressure ulcers - what to ask your doctor,2013). A lotion shouldalways be applied on body for avoiding the drying out of skin. Along with this, the clothesand bed sheet must always be kept dry by protecting the skin from sweat and urine. It isessential to check the skin on an everyday basis. In major cases the inspection should becloser at bony areas for checking of redness and any change in temperature (Arao,Shimada,HagisawaandFerguson, 2013). Gentle massaging of intact skin is essential as ithelps in the process of circulation and provides comfort. However, it must be remembered toavoid massaging of bony areas.Another suggested step for preventing the pressure ulcers is moving around as well aschanging places in the maximum possible manner. This is a key to prevention, but if pressureulcers are already present in the body then they can further be avoided by lying or sitting onthe ulcer position (Spetz,Brown,Aydinand Donaldson, 2013). Moreover, correct sitting andlying positions must also be practiced. Along with this the time interval in which moving,bending to be carried out should also be decided. The legs ought to be supported in a mannerso that they provide for a good posture in addition to proper decision about the equipments to2
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