Essay on Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults

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Prevention of tuberculosis inadults
Tuberculosisacronymed as TB is an infectious disease caused by bacterial strainMycobacterium tuberculosis.The disease majorly affects lung thereby causing pulmonary TB. Itmay influence other sites as well and in that case it is named as extrapulmonary TB.Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that spreads via air when the sick person expels out themicroorganisms via coughing or even sneezing (Strategies for TB prevention, 2013). It is also aknown fact that there is a presence of an increased probability of catching up TB if the individualis affected byhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which is known to cause AIDS (AcquiredImmuno Deficiency Syndrome). The onset of the disease is more common in the malepopulation as compared to the female counterpart (Mandal, 2013). The reason behind thisbehavior is not understood and requires further research to identify the risk factors that makemales more prone to TB. It is also found to affect adults that lie in the economically productivesections of society (How to Prevent Tuberculosis and its Spread,2013). The age group is in therange of15 to 59 years.Tuberculosisis considered as a major health problem that is affecting the whole world.According to statistical figures, an estimated 8.5 to 9.2 cases have been reported in the year2010. Among the given lot, the death accounted for 1.2to 2.5 million (Kaye, 2011). This is areflection that TB is now considered to be the second largest killer amongst all infectious diseaseafter HIV. Moreover, the crucial link between HIV and TB makes the case more severe. Hence,there is an urgent need to undertake prevention measures to avoid spread of this deadly menaceto healthy individuals of society (What Is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis, 2009). Greatstrides have been undertaken by the government of various nations which has reduced the impactof disease to a great extent. However, the disease is far away from complete control. The givenessay thus revolves around prevention of Tuberculosis in adult population who are more pronetoward the disease. It also reflects on the presence of issues that are impacting with preventingTB (Wormser, 2004).The prevention of TB is highly neglected due to presence in latent form as well as activeform. The most vulnerable among the two is the latent stage. Here, the individuals do not feelsick and also are devoid of symptoms that is an essential condition to mark the physical presenceof TB (Barrett and Stanberry, 2009). It is important to take care that individuals at this stage areinfected by the bacterial strain of Tuberculosis but are yet to develop TB disease. The only signthat indicates the presence of TB is existence of a positive reaction for TB blood test also named2
as tuberculin skin test. It is also a known fact that latent TB individuals do not bear the potentialto spread the disease to others (Gantz, 2004). It is only in a very few cases, where the latent stageof Tuberculosis may lead todevelopment of disease that also bears the potential to kill victim. Itis this absence of symptoms as well as subsequent lack of infection that makes individual for notadhering towards the treatment mechanism (O'Boyle and O'Boyle, 2012). Tuberculosis ismajorly concentrated among the vulnerable population including migrants from countries whichare endemic with TB, socially marginalized individuals, drug users, prisoners, HIV infectants,poor population and many more (Younger, 2010). A slight exposure to these individuals who aresuffering from TB can make individual prone towards the development of disease due to itshighly contagious nature.The prevention of TB takes place in two parts. In the first segment, the key is to stop thetransmission of TB from diseased to healthy individual. This can take place by identification ofpatients that are suffering from the malaise (whether in latent or active form) and then curing thedisease by proper treatment mechanism (Goodier, 2010). It is only by appropriate managementof TB, there will be absence of rapid reach towards infection thereby causing a potential to avoidthe spread of disease to others. The second segment towards TB prevention lies in preventingpeople with latent TB from developing active as well as infectious form of Tuberculosis disease(Marfin, 2012). This can be achieved by intake of medications for a fixed duration of time.In the fight against tuberculosis and with a view for curbing the disease, World HealthOrganization (WHO) recommends the usage of Bacilli Calmette- Guérin (BCG) vaccination.This is an urgent requirement in those countries who are heavily burdened by high incidences ofTB. The vaccine is found to contain a weakened form ofMycobacterium tuberculosis.The givenbacterial strain is made to enter in the body via vaccine in a controlled amount so as to help inthe induction of antibodies in human being that helps in fighting of the bacteria. Thereis apresence of huge variation with respect to the efficacy of vaccine that ranges from 0% to 84%.The drastic difference is on account of frequency towards TB exposure as well as the quality ofvaccine that has been made the part of treatment regime (Versteynen and Huisingh, 2012). Therehas been presence of many arguments against the BCG vaccine. It is found to induce positivereactions to tuberculin skin testing thereby registering an interference with diagnosis of latentTB. In past the BCG vaccine was given on patients with some success especially in thedeveloping nations. There was a presence of great ignorance among the government of these3
countries with respect to serious consequences of the same (Ahmad, 2012). But still it has beenconsidered as one of the major discoveries towards the prevention of disease.Tuberculosis drug treatment is also a part of prevention which is formally known aschemoprophylaxis. It can help in reduction of the risk associated with TB in people that havebeen exposed to the infection or are affected by latent TB. It can play a significant role forreducing the recurrence of TB episode (Dye, Watt, Bleed and Williams, 2003). In this respect,WHO recommends the intake of drug for a period ranging from six weeks to nine years.Currently the TB chemotherapy is composed of first-line drugs that are inclusive of isoniazid,ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. In the initial phase, treatment with the abovementioned drug is advisable with an underlying aim for eradicating or controlling the spread ofbacterial strain by replication via a rapid motion (Brown, 2004). It also involves avoidance ofemergence with respect to bacteria resistance which is regarded as the new issue in the world.There is also a presence of underlying issue with the intake of drug. The problem is that thesedrugs are usually administrated to latent TB sufferers who are devoid of the symptoms(Halberstein, 2011). Hence, the patients are usually found to leave the intake of these heavymedicines without the completion of course. Moreover, these drugs are also found to cause sideeffects ranging from joint and muscular pain, bodily rashes, tiredness and altered sensoryperception among a few (Ferrari, 2004).The widespread impact of the disease as well as the availability of new technologiesincreased the requirement to prevent tuberculosis in adults by implementation ofTB controlpolicy. This is based on the detection of maximum number of patients followed by their cure.Curing the disease is a major step towards prevention of TB. In this respect, there has been autilization of Directly Observed Treatment Strategy (DOTS). Under this prevention measure foradults, the strategy is particularly essential to make the patients adhere towards the drug intakewhich is a growing issue in the direction of effective treatment (Coleman, 2009).Here, the treatment to each patient is administrated by health professional directly. Thishappens on a daily/ alternate basis or according to requirement of drug intake. This strategy hasbeen made sure to undertake effective prevention of TB from infected to healthy individuals.This helps in reaching the rural masses, evaluation of relapsed and new cases, treatment failureand severity of TB etc (Adorno, 2012).4
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