Problem Statement challenge Approximately 60% of air pollution is from energy supplies , about 89% of SouthAfrica’s electricity is produced using coal ( Inglesei , 2016) .South Africa’s electricitysector plays a role in carbon emissions causing global warming, since the energysector depends particularly on coal to generate electricity( Pouris, 2016) .Accordingto Pfenninger (2015) the introduction of renewable electricity and technologies canassist in reducing greenhouse gas emission .With renewable energy such as solarpanels / solar heaters introduced in South Africa , household owners have theoption to choose the type of electricity they prefer to use (Fechner ,2015) . Althoughsolar panels / solar heaters are not a recent development, the adaption of solarpanels / solar heaters is till behind and not popular in South Africa compared to othercountries( Walwyn, 2015) . Research conducted to investigate the adoption of solarpanels / solar heaters uncovered that only few of South African house hold ownersuse solar panels / solar heater the majority still use non-renewable electricity(Malinga , 2015) According to Patt ( 2015) solar panels / solar heaters are still confronted withobstacles such as financial barriers since it can be very expensive to install thesolar panels / solar heaters . A lack of awareness about the environmental benefitsof installing solar panels / solar heaters also act as a barrier to adoption of solarpanels / solar heaters (Patt et al. 2015). Jarbandhan (2018) state that energy sectorsare facing challenges with regards to urging household to switch to using solarpanels / solar heaters however the adoption rate is still slow. According to Wallin(2014) not enough research have been conducted on the adoption of solar panels /solar heaters in South Africa leaving a lack of understanding on how certain factorsaffect the adoption of green electricity. This study therefore aims to f determine thefactors influencing adoption of solar technology in South Africa.Research question
What are the factors influencing household owners adoption of solar panels /solar heaters in Gauteng, South Africa?RESEARCH OBJECTIVES PRIMARY OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this study is to investigate the factors that influencehousehold owner’s adoption of solar panels / solar heaters in Gauteng, SouthAfrica.SECONDARY OBJECTIVES●To investigate how subjective knowledge affect behavioural intention to usesolar panels / solar heaters.●To investigate household owners perception on perceived social risk relatedto adopting solar panels / solar heaters.●To determine how household owners subjective norm will influence theirattitudes towards adoption of solar panels / solar heaters.●To assess household owners perception on ‘usefulness’ regarding solarpanels / solar heaters.●To determine household owners willingness to for solar panels / solarheaters. Literature reviewIntroduction 1.1The South African Energy industry
South Africa has a well-developed energy system. According to keho (2016) themain challenges that are currently facing the energy sector globally are ensuring thatthe high demand of electricity is fulfilled. Energy suppliers need to take measures tolower greenhouse gas emissions (Annegarn, 2016). According to Evans (2015) South Africa’s energy sector utilises more than 90 millioncoals per year to produce electricity, leading the energy sector to be one of thecauses of greenhouse emission. According to Brent (2015) South Africa’s energysuppliers rely heavily on the use fossil fuels and coal. Technologies such as solarpanels/ were introduced in South Africa to provide relief relating to environmentaldamage and the uncertainty of reliable electricity supply (Baker, 2016).Green behaviourGreen refers to behaviour that is not harmful to the environment, consuming productsand services that are environmentally friendly (Tate, 2014). Bassi (2014)supported this statement adding that green behaviour minimise unfriendlyenvironmental practices .Green behaviour has been driven by environmentalproblems facing south Africa with the aim to reduce environmental damage(Smith, 2017). According to Venter (2014) installing solar water heaters/ solarpanels is perceived as green behaviour in a sense that solar water heaters/ solarpanels use sunlight to generate electricity with no gas emissions. According to kwamoto (2015) Solar panels are environmentally friendly since they donot produce air pollution. According to Azimoh (2015) the estimated amount topurchase solar water heater may cost a home owner R18,000 to 30, 000 inSouth Africa .The high cost of installing solar water heaters/ solar panels mayprevent green behaviour because household owners may have to use electricityprovided by energy suppliers (Azimoh et al., (2015) 2.2 Theories in green behaviour
Theory of Reasoned Action The Theory of Reasoned Action is explained as an model that can explain behaviour( Ajzen 1975). According to Reiter (2017) the theory of Reasoned Action suggeststhat the intention to perform behaviour is impacted by subjective norms and attitudetowards intention and behaviour. Akman( 2014) The purpose of the model is toforecast the individuals behaviour in situations where an she or he is in controls ofhis/her own behaviour .Theory of Norm activationThe NAM theory was developed by Schwartz (1977) to examine environmentallyfriendly behaviour (Onwezen, 2013). According to Schwartz (1977), this theorysuggest that pro-Social behaviour is impacted by the following factors , awareness ofconsequences, acknowledgement of responsibility, and personal norm .This theorysuggest that , norm activation begins with an individual's being aware of thepossible dangerous repercussion for not acting environmentally friendly Park2014) .Van ( 2015) state that individual awareness activates a personal norm thatinfluence an individual whether he/she should perform a certain action that impede aharmful outcome . Awareness may create acknowledgement of responsibility thisrefers to “A sense of responsibility for the negative repercussion of not actingenvironmentally friendly” Schwartz (1977)This study will be grounded by the Theory of planned behaviour
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