Physical Anthropology Assignment

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGYPhysical AnthropologyName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGYIntroductionAnatomical changes that are required for the transition to BipedalismBipedalism is the process where it explains the characteristics of modern human beingsthat have gone through the process of evolution over the years. It tries to identify the evidence ofthe process in the fossil that helps to determine the pressure that the human beings have facedthat has forced them to attain the process of evolution. There can be number of factors that havean effect on the process of evolution of human being. These factors are being analyzed bybipedalism (White et al., 2015).Bipedalism refers to movement, amongst various numbers of species there are very fewwho can walk on two legs. There are some specific breeds who practice this process which iswhich is known as facultative bipedalism. There are times when octopus walks on their hands orpractice bipedalism which is temporary in nature. In this process they put their six legs over theirhead and walk on rest of the two. They use this process in order to camouflage themselves(Barrett & Maidment, 2017).Habitual bipedalism which is also known as obligate bipedalism is a rare characteristicsmeans of transportation. There are very few species that are present at the current time whopractice habitual bipedalism. The species that practice habitual bipedalism includes humanbeings and kangaroos. This species show characteristics where the species have used bipedalismbut still they retain the arboreal behavior.Around thousands of years of ago there was a massive change in the climatic condition ofearth where there was a massive drop in temperature. During this period there was a massivereduction in sea level, which resulted in change of sea level. There was a scarcity of water which
2PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGYresulted in reduction of forest which dried up soon therefore there was a growth of wood landand plain territory (Dunbar et al., 2014).Extensive study has drawn a conclusion that the ancestors of human beings used to live ina habitat which was made up of wood. The study have also showed that there were some earlybipedal features which were retained by human beings such as long arms which were used by ourancestors to climb trees while living in the woodland. The DNA evidence shows the proof thatthe human beings and the apes share the same DNA characteristics. This understanding has andwill help in the future in the process of study of the evolution in the human beings (Granatosky,Tripp & Schmitt, 2016).Behavioral changes might accompany these physical changesThough bipedalism is not considered to be the best or the most effective structure for theposition of form of running as well as walking but it does carry a numerous positive options,which can contribute immensely towards walking. It is still not very clear from the study whyour ancestors went through and evolution and why they adopted bipedalism form of walking(Zeininger, Shapiro & Raichlen, 2017).Hypothesis shows that the bipedalism can carry the food and other items to a longerdistance which is the freeing of forelimbs for foraging, tool use, or protection; moving moreenergy-efficiently than other forms of primate quadrupedalism; and the development of longdistance running (Ingham et al., 2017). Bipedalism can easily cool their body temperature whichis known as thermoregulation. Despite a lack of consensus about the origins of bipedalism, manyif not most of these proposed hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Some combination of
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