Project On Anatomy and Physiology of Human Skeleton and Muscles.

Added on - 01 Mar 2020

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Anatomy and Physiology of Human Skeleton and MusclesName of the Student:Name of the University:Author’s Note:
TAQ 1:The Musculoskeletal System of the human body comprise of the bones (SkeletalSystem), the muscles (Muscular system) and several other connective tissues such as tendons,ligaments, cartilages and joints, which work in a coordinated manner to achieve the functionsof the whole system. The system is primarily concerned with support stability and movementof the body. There are 206 bones in an adult body which provides support for the entire body,stored minerals and lipids, produces blood cells, protects the internal organs and providesleverage and movement (Neumann 2013). The three primary functions of the bones and theskeletal system as a whole are protection of organs of the body, production of blood cells andcalcium homeostasis.Two types of bone tissues are found in human body that consists of three differentkinds of cells namely osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. Osteoblasts are the bone-forming cells, osteoclasts are cells that break down and resorb bones and osteocytes aremature bone cells. The anatomy of the cross section of bone comprises of a thin layer ofdense connective tissue layer called Periosteum. The Periosteum is further divided into afibrous outer layer consisting of the fibroblasts and an inner cambium consisting ofosteoblasts progenitor cells. This layer provides blood supply to the different bone cells andis the site of muscular attachment. Under the Periosteum is the compact bone made of closelypacked harvesian systems. This solid section provides strength to the bones. The inside of thebone is a spongy, lightweight and porous containing the bone marrow.Further, bones are the calcium storage organ of the body. When calcium levels in theblood decrease, bones release calcium and calcium is stored when excess calciumaccumulates in blood (Murshed and McKee 2010). The other major function of bones is
production of three kinds of blood cells, leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets fromhematopoietic stem cells present within the bone marrow.TAQ 2:JointJoint TypeMovement RangeToesThis joint falls under hingejoints. In such joints thecylindrical surface of onebone fits into the groove fanother bone.Movement is limited to onedirection only. The anglebetween the joint canincrease or decrease.Overextension of theswinging motion can causeinjury to the joints.Joint between atlas and axis(upper neck vertebrae)This is a pivot joint. Here,one bone forms a collar likestructure and another bonewithin that collar.It only allows rotatorymovement.Thumb JointIt is a saddle joint. In thistype of joints as indicated bythe name saddle shapedbones meet at right angles.These joints have limitedrotatory motion and canmove sideways and back andforth.Joints between bones ofSkullThese are fixed joints and arebound together by fibroustissues.These joints allow very littleor no movement at all.The Wrist JointIt is a type of ellipsoidal orcondyloid joint. Here theoval end of one bone fits intoa cup shaped structure ofanother giving the joint anellipsoid shape.These joints allow back andforth movement andsideways movement. Therotational movement of suchjoints are limited (Reese andBandy 2016).TAQ 3:Running is a complex process, which involves the combined action of differentmuscles and joints of the body. Although the lower part of the body is mostly involved inrunning movement, the torso, arm and core body muscles also play important role when aperson is running. The major muscles involved in the process of running are the QuadricepsFemoris, hamstrings, Gluteus Maximus, hip flexors, calf muscles and the core abdominalmuscles. The joints involved are hip, knee and ankle joints (Higashihara, Ono, Kubota,
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