Psychology for Health and Social Care - Sample Assignment

Added on - 03 Dec 2019

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Psychology for Health andSocial Care1
Table of ContentsIntroduction................................................................................................................................................3Task 1.........................................................................................................................................................3a) Lifespan Development Perspective..............................................................................................3b) Key features associated with life stages.......................................................................................5c) Nature-Nurture Debate.................................................................................................................7Task 2.........................................................................................................................................................82(a) Reason behind Peter's stress related symptoms........................................................................82(b) Role of psycho-dynamism in challenging negative thoughts...................................................92(c) How evolutionary theory can inform an understanding of patient's depression.....................102(d) How mental health nursing can bring about a behaviour change through humanistic approach102(e) How cognitive behavioural therapy can foster collaborative relationships between doctor andpatient..............................................................................................................................................11Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................12References................................................................................................................................................132
INTRODUCTIONHealth and social care industry is very important part of a society, as it is directly related withworking of individuals in the community and their effectiveness in carrying out their tasks andactivities on a daily basis (Moule and Hek, 2011). In this sector, a critical component is that of thepsychology. It sometimes aids doctors and health care practitioners; while in some cases it acts as ahindering force. Present research study appreciates and assesses the role of psychology in health andsocial care practices. In addition to this, the investigation also discusses about various classical theoriesand concepts to explain life-span development in a much better and in an effective manner.TASK 1a) Lifespan Development PerspectiveLifespan development perspective can be defined as a form of human development which isdetermined by a wide variety of aspects and frameworks. This essentially means that, the theory oflifespan development includes view points of an individual right from their birth to childhood till oldage (Thoits, 2011).Therefore it includes the likes of intellectual development, physical, emotionaldevelopment, etc. Thus herein it can be said that the theory of lifespan development can lead to a muchbetter understanding of different stages of development that the concerned individual goes through(Aspinwall and Tedeschi, 2010). The lifespan development theory would shed light over aspects suchas physical or tangible development, like their body structure, muscles, etc. In addition to it, the theoryalso provides insights into intellectual, i.e. mental development that the concerned person goes through.For instance it helps in understanding the improvement in mental status and condition of an individual.Furthermore, it also provides great insights into emotional development that the concerned personundergoes through (Greene, 2011).In essence, it may not be wrong to say that lifespan development isa perspective for understanding 'human ageing' in a much better and effective manner. For gaining abetter understanding of how human grows old, it is imperative that their life should be evaluated orassessed from a variety of viewpoints or perspectives. This would provide a much effectiveunderstanding and comprehension of the way people develop and grow. Lifespan developmentperspective sheds light on transformation of an individual throughout their life.Over the years, there have been many theories and models that have explained the phenomenonof lifespan development in a very subtle yet in an effective manner (Cummings, Greene and Karraker,2014). One of them is that of Behaviourist perspective. It states that, people and their behaviour are3
largely controlled by the environment in which they live.Over the years various authors havecontributed to this lifespan development perspective. It includes the likes of Watson (1913) whoestablished his own behavioural school of psychology (Kinderman and Tai, 2009). Thorndike (1905)formalized the law of effect; while Skinner (1936) wrote The Behaviour of Organisms (Kinderman andTai, 2009).Therefore, according to this theory, growth and development of people is the result ofactivities of environment that they are a part of. In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that peoplerespond to stimuli, i.e. environmental forces, as they learn from it only. Behaviourist theory rejects theidea and concept that people have free will; rather it is the environment which determines theirbehaviour and responses (Kinderman and Tai, 2009).Psycho-dynamic Perspective, on the other hand states that people do not learn from theirenvironment, rather they all act and react on the basis of their childhood experiences.This theory wasdeveloped by Sigmund Freud but included many other contributors as well, such as Jung (1964), Adler(1927), Erikson (1950), etc.People have very little free will to make their own choices and decisionsrather they extensively are dependent upon their unconscious mind and childhood experiences.Humanistic theory in this context states that behaviour of an individual largely is connected with theirinner feelings, desires and self-image.One of the main contributors to development of this theory wasCarl Rogers, whose works largely were inspired by Otto Rank. This theory was further developed byAbraham Maslow. This means that people behave in a way, only by reflecting on their feelings, desiresand needs (McGorry, 2010). The humanistic perspective herein states that growth and development ofan individual would be very different from some another person, as feelings and desires of no twopersons are ever similar. According to Cognitive theory of human development, the only way to gainbetter understanding of people is to identify how their brain works, i.e. to assess and evaluate theirmemory, perception, attention, etc.It was developed by Jean Piaget (Piaget, 1970).Another theory of life span development perspective is that of Evolutionary psychology.Though it is considered that Charles Darwin was the father of this theory, but many believe that authorssuch as William James also have had a major role to play in development of the theory. It is atheoretical approach and studies and evaluates the psychological structured through a modernevolutionary perspective (Rigby, 2011). This theory basically studies and identifies various humantraits and characteristics that have evolved as a result of evolved adaptations. It means that theorists andpsychologists through the said approach assess the functional products of natural selection or sexualselection. Various psychologists in this context argue that the mind has a modular structure which is4
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