Psychology Assignment - Theories of life span development

Added on - 22 Oct 2020

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Psychology
TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................1QUESTION 1: Theories of life span development.........................................................................1QUESTION 2: Relation between psychological theories and development stages.......................3QUESTION 3: Impact of biological and social factors on human behaviour................................4QUESTION 4: Significance of social roles in health and social care settings................................6CONCLUSION.............................................................................................................................14REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................16
INTRODUCTIONPsychology is defined as the study of various aspects of behaviour and actions of mind. Itanalyses the attributes such as feelings, emotions and level of consciousness which influences thebehaviour as well as development of individuals. The psychological theories are considered asvery crucial in order to predict the possible response and behaviour of the people. It helps tounderstand the rationale for performing particular actions as well as to analyse the evolution anddevelopment stages (Strauss, 2017).The health and social care (H&SC) services can be improved to a great extent by usingthe concepts and theories of psychology. The report will discuss the various theories of life spandevelopment and impact of psychological theories on its stages. It will also analyse the impact ofbiological and social factors which influence the behaviour of human beings.QUESTION 1: Theories of life span developmentThe life span development is known as the holistic approach for understanding the variouscognitive, physiological, social and emotional changes from the stage of conception to theultimate phase of death. The development process of individuals is affected by several factorssuch as biological, external environment as well as their interaction and communication withothers. These stages of development can be effectively explained by various psychodynamictheories proposed by Erk Erikson and Sigmund Freud. The comparison between both of thesetheories is given as below:Development theory proposed by Freud:It states that the experiences gained in the earlier development stages or in childhoodinfluences our emotions and motives. This theory is considered as psychosexual because it in thefirst few development years (childhood) the aggression and sexual drives of child is managed byparents. Thus, by this theory the development stage is classified into several stages from 0 yearand above.Development phase:PhaseAge for development (Years)Oral0-2Anal2 – 31
Phallic stage3 – 5Latency4 – 11Genital12 and above(Source:Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development, 2018)Erikson theory:This theory considers as social impact or the external factors as key parametersfor controlling the development process. Contrary to development stages given by Freud in thistheory stages are classified on the basis of behavioural category.Development stages:StagesDuration (Years)Trust and mistrustBirth – 1.5 yearsAutonomy and shame1.5 – 3 yearsInitiative and guilt3 – 6Industry and inferiority6 – 12Identity and confusion of role12 – 18Intimacy and isolation19 – 40Generality and stagnation40 – 65Despair and ego integrity65 years and above2Illustration1: Psychosexual stages proposed by Freud
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