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Assignment on psychopharmacology PDF

Added on - 23 Nov 2021

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CASE STUDY: ‘Pat the Wanderer’
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
Answer 1
The basal forebrain cholinergic system is primarily involved in the onset of different
signs and symptoms in the patient Pat. Some of the signs and symptoms indicated by Pat
comprise of an interruption in thoughts and reasoning, gradual loss of memory, addiction to
cigarettes, difficulty in comprehending the information conveyed, depression, agitation and
mobility impairment. The structure of basal forebrain is located in front of the striatum and
comprises of the nucleus accumbens, substantia innominate, diagonal band of Broca, nucleus
basalis, and medial septal nucleus (Paul et al., 2015). According to Ballinger et al. (2016) the
basal forebrain cholinergic system has been found imperative in the development of the
system owing to the fact that they play a vital role in the synthesis of acetylcholine, a
neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in the brain. The two main regions are cited below:
When working together with the medial septum nucleus and the septum pellucidum,
the diagonal band of Broca takes part in theta wave generation, thus governing the
functions of the Hippocampus, most of which are related to emotion regulation,
spatial navigation and memory(Catani, Dell’Acqua& De Schotten, 2013).
Another cholinergic system, the nucleus basalis is responsible for the loss of attention
in the patient since it promotes sustained attention (Gratwicke et al., 2013).
Cholinergic neurons of this structure moderate the relation of different components of
visual perception.
Answer 2
The main types of cholinergic receptors are:
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors- They are also referred to asnAChRand ionotropic
acetylcholine receptors, these are chiefly responsive to acetylcholine andnicotine
(Wonnacott et al., 2018).
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors- They are also referred to asmAChRor
metabotropic acetylcholine receptors and are responsive to muscarin, the natural
product found in mushrooms, apart from acetylcholine (Kruse et al., 2014).
nAChR modulates the neurobiological processes that control the hippocampal function of
memory and learning. Nicotine has the ability to deaden(here deaden used to denote
inactivity of the receptors)and upregulate definite nAChRs, thus altering the hippocampus
reliant memory processes.On the other hand, themAChR controls the formation of episodic
Answer 3
Some of the drugs that can be administered to Pat are:
Central depressants such as, barbiturates and benzodiapines will inhibit
monoaminergic activity or facilitate GABA, thus modifying the electrical signalling
and reducing the signs of depression in the patient (Jeffery et al., 2014).
Psychotherapeutic drugs will also prove beneficial in treating the mood and behaviour
of Pat and will produce their impact by blocking the receptors or inhibiting the
transporters. Two common psychotherapeutic drugs are Prozac and Thorazine
Answer 4
Another potential neurotransmitter system that is relevant in Pat’s case is the Gamma-
aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. Most of the GABA is synthesised for glutamate
decarboxylation that is catalysed by glutamate decarboxylase. Upon release into the synaptic
cleft, the GABA is taken by and converted to glutamine by the astrocyte cells. GABA
transaminase catalyses the reaction. This neurotransmitter system comprises of three kinds of
GABAergic receptors namely, 1) GABAA, 2) GABAB, 3)GABAC. Owing to the fact that the
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