Public Health Reports - PubMed Central

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PUBLIC HEALTHREPORT
Table ofContentsINTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................11. Identification and critical discussion of four cultural practices in England that act as helpand hindrance to intervention.................................................................................................12. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation for this intervention.............................................53. Ethical consideration arising from delivery of intervention and ways in which interventionis of benefit to global health...................................................................................................74. Manner in which effectiveness and efficiency of the intervention will be determined......8Planning Intervention Design: Intervention Mapping......................................................8CONCLUSION................................................................................................................................9REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................10REFERENCES..............................................................................................................................10
INTRODUCTIONPublic Health Report or more commonly referred to as PHR can be said to be a peerreviewed public health journal that was published for United States Public Health Service as wellas Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health by SAGE Publishers in the year 1878.The frequency of publication as well as the title of this journal has varied with the passage oftime, however, it is presently being released once in every two months. The Editor in Chief ofthis journal is ascertained to be Frederic Shaw. Herein, articles are first released under the statusof ‘delayed open access’ but later with the passage of an annum from date of publication, ittransforms into ‘fully open access.’ Such articles can be access by way of PubMed Central.The present report is based on a public health intervention prevailing in England, namely,polio vaccination. This has been chosen because it is regarded as vaccination is found to be oneof the most significant and relevant aspect of public health which prevents millions of demisesacross the globe every annum. Immunisation of childhood takes place dependent upon attitude ofparents, especially mothers, towards vaccination. This report consists of cultural practices thatfoster and hinder the intervention along with quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Also, itcomprises of ethical considerations together with effectiveness as well as efficiency ofintervention1. Identification and critical discussion of four cultural practices in England that act as help andhindrance to interventionVaccination is a very important intervention of public health as this providesimmunisation to children against preventable diseases. In this regard, it has been found that poliois a widespread disease that generally develops in people under 5 years of age. Although thenumber of people stricken by Polio have gradually decreased within England in last century, yetthe need to raise awareness and take measures for this health issues is necessary. This gainsimportance because of the serious and negative consequences that it is found to have for people.In this relation, it is ascertained that many issues arise for people having polio (Poliomyelitis).Some of the short term consequences associated with this disease are stiffened back as well asneck without or with paralysis, immense pain in muscles, breathing along with swallowing issuesetc. Further, one of the biggest long term consequences of this disease is found to be long termdisability owing to paralysis of muscles.1
Polio is a severely contagious disease which takes place owing to a virus which isascertained to attack the nervous systems of individuals. In this regard, it is often seen thatchildren under 5 years of age are more probable to come in contact with this virus that any otherkind of group. As per the reports of WHO (World Health Organisation), it is acknowledged that1 out of every 200 polio infections ultimately leads to permanent paralysis taking place. TheGlobal Polio Eradication Initiative began in the year 1988 owing to which the extent of thisdisease has reduced a lot over last century. Yet there are cases that are reported of poliomyelitisacross the globe, especially England. Till the time even one child is getting infected by the virusof Polio, the effort to raise awareness for this cause and to take measures to eradicate it acrossthe globe is significant and relevant. The vaccine for this disease was made in the year 1953 andwas made accessible only from the year 1957. Elimination of polio holds relevance andsignificance for a nation as its eradication would be benefitting the globe in the form of astronger economy and enhanced quality of health. The purge of Poliomyelitis has the potential tosignificantly save not less than $40-50 billion people in a time span of upcoming 20 yrs.As per the estimates, it can be said that 95-99% of persons who contract the virus of polioare asymptomatic. This phenomenon is referred to as subclinical polio. However, it has beenseen that personnel who are infected with Poliomyelitis virus could spread this virus and createinfection amidst other people even where they gained polio without any type of symptoms.Non paralytic poliomyelitis shows its symptoms and signs for 1 to 10 days. Such signsmay include headache, fever, vomiting, fatigue, sore throat, meningitis etc. Such kind ofpoliomyelitis is also referred to as abortive polio. On the contrary, paralytic polio is the onewhich results in paralysis taking place of brainstem or spinal cord or both. Full paralysis is leastlikely to take place as a result of polio. Only in 7-10% cases of paralytic polio, the virus of thisdisease can be so severe that it may hold the capability to attack those muscles which causebreathing in individuals and thereby ultimately result in death of the person. Further, there areprobabilities that polio can return even whereby an individual had recovered from it totally. Thisis referred to as Post Polio Syndrome. This may take place after 15-40 years.From the above discussion, it can be ascertained that the impact of contracting poliovirusis so severe that there is a dire need for the initiative undertaken to eradicate global poliocontinue to exist. The people of a country and their attitudes towards such diseases are of theutmost importance while dealing with them.Uptake of vaccination against seasonal influenza is2
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