Essay on Methodological, Conceptual and Practical Issues in SIA Process

Added on - 21 Apr 2020

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Running head: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION-ISSUES AND METHODOLOGIESPublic Participation-Issues and MethodologiesName of the Student:Name of the University:Author’s Note:
1PUBLIC PARTICIPATION-ISSUES AND METHODOLOGIESThesis statement- This essay analyzes the methodological, conceptual and practicalissues which are involved in the SIA process, the SIA and public participation process is alsodiscussed in the essay.IntroductionThe Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) model led to the concept of Social ImpactAssessment in the United States in the year 1970s. The development projects and schemes likethe roads, airports, mines and other infrastructural projects have social impacts which werestudied by the SIA. Major developments in several countries across the globe affect groups,population and settlement and thus Social Impact Assessment should be conducted. A set of coreprinciples should be followed for the practice of public participation. The public should expresstheir opinion about decisions and actions that affect their lives. Sustainable decisions arepromoted by the public participation because the interests and needs of all participants anddecision making agencies are communicated in the process of public participation (Arce-Gomez,Donovan and Bedggood 2015).Public participation has many benefits like decision makingagencies can understand the needs, role and contribution of members of the community andsupport from community members is gained by the process of public participation.DiscussionEIA has purpose of completion of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) andimprovement of quality of decisions (Glasson, Therivel and Chadwick 2013).Public should beinformed about the proposed project and the purpose of the project. Public should be made awareof the adverse impacts of a project on the environment and this will be an environmentallysensitive decision. Integration of economic, environmental and social objectives is the critical
2PUBLIC PARTICIPATION-ISSUES AND METHODOLOGIESrole of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Public participation can contribute positively tothe process of EIA. The methodological issues of public participation are based on screening,profiling, scoping, assessment, development of alternatives and monitoring. Public involvement(PI) is an activity within the process of Social Impact Assessment (SIA). Quantitativeinformation about variables of Social Impact Assessment can be obtained by the social impactassessor. In the process of screening, a planned intervention can be descried, public involvementcan be invited, the issues and impacts of screening can be understood and it can be determined ifSocial Impact Assessment (SIA) will be required. In the process of profiling existing data isgathered, spatial domain is determined, areas of impact is delineated and community engagementof solicited. Scoping involves technical identification and engagement of community. Assessingis the process of where a comparative diachronic model is adopted, an interactive communityforum (ICF) is conducted and cumulative impacts are measured. In the process of developingimpacts technical and engineering aspects and social, environmental and economic criteria areconsidered. In the mitigation process, impacts are identified and prioritized, mitigation strategiesare developed and these strategies are implemented. In the monitoring process, key impacts arelisted, targets are compared, monitoring plan is developed and grievance handling process ismonitored. In the management and evaluation process, social impacts are managed, mitigationstrategies are evaluated, and corrective action plans are adopted. Thus, it can be understood thatin the process of Social Impact Assessment, the intended and unintended social consequenceswhich are both positive and negative can be analyzed, monitored and managed. In both SocialImpact Assessment (SIA) and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), impact area isidentified, data is collected, analysis and mitigation is done and generating solutions areprovided. However socio-economic studies of people who are affected by loss of land, loss of
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