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Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance

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Added on  2024-01-18

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This experiment focuses on studying the working of a pyrheliometer and calculating direct normal irradiance and global horizontal irradiance. The experiment was conducted at the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.

Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance

   Added on 2024-01-18

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ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
University of Engineering and Technology
Lahore

Assignment of:

Energy Resources and Utilization-Laboratory

Assignment Type:

Lab Report

Submitted To:

Sir Syed Saqib

Submitted By:

2018-ME-133

Ahsan Junaid

________________________________________________________________
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_1
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Table of Contents

1.
Objective: .............................................................................................................8
2.
Experimental Setup:.............................................................................................8
3.
Literature Review ................................................................................................9
3.1. Pyrheliometer:
.................................................................................................9
3.2. Main Components of Pyrheliometer:
.............................................................9
3.3. Pyrheliometer a Solar Irriadiance Sensor: ....................................................10

3.4. Difference between Pyrheliometer & Pyranometer: ....................................10

3.5. Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI): ..................................................................11

3.6. Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI): ............................................................11

4.
Working of a Pyrheliometer: .............................................................................11
5.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................12
6.
Advantages of Pyrheliometer: ...........................................................................13
7.
Applications of Pyrheliometer: ..........................................................................13
8.
Characteristics of Pyrheliometer: ......................................................................16
9.
References ..........................................................................................................16
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................17
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................17
2.1. Declination: ...................................................................................................18

2.2. Solar elevation ..............................................................................................19

Zenith angle ..........................................................................................................19

Solar Azimuth Angle: ...........................................................................................19

3.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................20
4.
Graphs ................................................................................................................21
5.
Conclusion .........................................................................................................21
6.
Advantages: .......................................................................................................22
7.
Disadvantages: ...................................................................................................22
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_2
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
8.
References:.........................................................................................................23
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................24
2.
Experimental Setup ............................................................................................24
3.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................25
3.1. Evacuated Tube Collectors ...........................................................................25

3.1.3.1 Direct-flow evacuated-tube collectors: ...................................................27

3.1.3.2
Heat pipe evacuated-tube collectors: ....................................................28
Integrated Tank Solar Collectors: .........................................................................29

4.
Experimental Setup:...........................................................................................30
5.
Measuring Instruments and device: ...................................................................30
6.
Experimentation Data Analysis: ........................................................................30
6.1. Experimental Results: ...................................................................................31

7.
Conclusion: ........................................................................................................31
8.
References ..........................................................................................................32
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................33
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................33
2.1.
Parabolic Trough Collector: ........................................................................33
2.1.1.
Working Principle ....................................................................................34
2.1.2.
Solar Thermal Power System ...................................................................34
2.1.2.2.
Solar Power Towers ..............................................................................35
2.1.2.3.
Solar Dish Systems ...............................................................................35
3.
Optical and Thermal Analysis of High Concentration Parabolic Trough
Collectors .................................................................................................................37

3.1.
Structure ......................................................................................................37
3.1.1. Geometry: ..................................................................................................37

3.1.2. Solar Tracking: ..........................................................................................37

3.1.3. Reflectors: ...................................................................................................37

3.1.3.1. Photogrammetry: ....................................................................................37

3.1.3.2. Deflectometry: ........................................................................................38
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_3
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
3.1.4. Reflectivity Measurement:.........................................................................39

4.
Abrasion Test: ....................................................................................................39
5.
Advantages: .......................................................................................................40
6.
Disadvantages: ...................................................................................................40
7.
References ..........................................................................................................41
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................42
2.
Experimental Setup:...........................................................................................42
3.
Theory: ...............................................................................................................43
4.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................44
5.
Calculations and observations: ..........................................................................45
6.
Result .................................................................................................................47
7.
References ..........................................................................................................48
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................49
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................49
2.1. Dynamometer: ...............................................................................................49

2.2. Ac dynamometer: ..........................................................................................50

2.3. Types of Dynamometers: ..............................................................................51

2.3.1.
Eddy Current Dynamometer ....................................................................51
2.4.
Applications for Dynamometers .................................................................53
2.4.1.
Data Acquisition .......................................................................................54
2.5.
Dynamometer Design for measuring the cutting force on Turning ............54
2.6.
Data acquisition ...........................................................................................55
2.7.
Advantages ..................................................................................................56
2.8.
Disadvantages:.............................................................................................56
3.
Rpm and rotating torque ....................................................................................56
4.
Results:...............................................................................................................57
5.
References:.........................................................................................................58
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................59
2.
Experimental Setup ............................................................................................59
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_4
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
3.
Literature View ..................................................................................................59
3.1. Wind Tunnel ..................................................................................................59

3.2. “Types of wind tunnels” ...............................................................................60

3.2.1. “Open vs closed circuit wind tunnel” .......................................................60

3.2.2.
“Subsonic vs Supersonic wind tunnel” ...................................................61
3.2.3.
“Education vs research wind tunnel” .......................................................62
3.2.4.
“Laminar vs turbulent wind tunnel ........................................................62
3.3. Parts of Wind Tunnel ....................................................................................62

a.
“Inlet duct” .....................................................................................................62
b.
“Test section” ..............................................................................................62
c.
“Diffuser” .......................................................................................................63
d.
“Axial flow fan unit” ...................................................................................63
e.
“Control console” ...........................................................................................63
f.
“Attachments” ................................................................................................63
i.
“Strain gauge balance” ...................................................................................63
ii.
“Multi bank manometer” .............................................................................63
3.4.
Aerodynamics Fundamentals ......................................................................64
Expression For “Lift Force” .................................................................................65

4.
Procedure ...........................................................................................................67
5.
Results ................................................................................................................67
6.
Graphs ................................................................................................................68
7.
Simulation using Ansys .....................................................................................69
8.
Conclusion and Recommendations ...................................................................70
9.
References ..........................................................................................................71
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_5
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Table of Figures.

Figure 1 Measurement of Direct Normal Irridiance (DNI) using Pyrheliometer ......8

Figure 2 Measurement of Global Horizontal Irridiance (GHI) using Pryheliometer

................................................................................................................................
....8
Figure 3 A Pyrheliometer pointed at the Sun to measure the Solar Irridiance
coming directly from the Sun
....................................................................................9
Figure 4 Main Components of a Pyrheliometer
........................................................9
Figure 5 Pyrometers measure Direct Solar radiation ..............................................10

Figure 6 Spectral Distribution of DNI Data from ASTM G-173-03 Referance
Spectra. Red line shows typical spectral response curve of Quartz ........................11

Figure 7 DNI as measured by DR30 Pyrheliometer ...............................................12

Figure 8 Pyrheliometers measure only sunlight from a small area around the sun,
characterized by an opening half-angle of 2.5 ° ......................................................12

Figure 9 Standard Pyrheliometer Angles ................................................................13

Figure 10 Pyrheliometer in Scientific Metrological ...............................................14

Figure 11 Observations of Climate .........................................................................14

Figure 12 Testing Research of Material .................................................................14

Figure 13 Estimation of Solar Collector Efficiency ...............................................15

Figure 14 Use in PV Devices ..................................................................................15

Figure 15 Production of electricity from solar energy on large scale .....................17

Figure 16 Solar Zenith angle....................................................................................19

Figure 17 Solar Azimuth Angle ...............................................................................19

Figure 18 Variance of reflectance with angle of incidence .....................................21

Figure 19 Experimental Setup .................................................................................24

Figure 20 Schematic Diagram of Evacuated Tube Collector ..................................25

Figure 21 A typical example of Digital Display ......................................................27

Figure 22 A Typical Diagram of components of Evacuated Tube Collector ..........27

Figure 23 Schematic Diagram of Direct flow Evacuated Tube Solar Collector .....28

Figure 24 Integrated Tank Solar Collectors ............................................................29

Figure 25 Parabolic Trough Collector ....................................................................33

Figure 26 Parabolic Trough Collector with single axis solar tracker .....................34

Figure 27 Linear Fresnel Reflectors ........................................................................35

Figure 28 Solar Power Towers ................................................................................35

Figure 29 Solar Dish systems ..................................................................................35
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_6
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Figure 30 Analysis by photogrammetry of a common collector element ...............38

Figure 31 Measurement principle of Deflectometry of a reflecting surface ...........38

Figure 32 The bar projection field for the deflectometry and the reflecting image
on the mirrors of an inspected heliostat ...................................................................39

Figure 33 Sketch of the laser scanner VSHOT ........................................................39

Figure 34 Graph for Diurnal wind speed variations ...............................................45

Figure 35 Daily maximum, minimum, and mean wind speed variations ................46

Figure 36 Monthly mean speed wind variation .....................................................46

Figure 37 Schematic Diagram of Dynamometer .....................................................50

Figure 38 Eddy Current Dynamometer ...................................................................51

Figure 39 Power Dynamometer ...............................................................................52

Figure 40 Engine Dynamometer ..............................................................................53

Figure 41 Schematic representation of experimental set-up..................................55

Figure 42 The photo of designed and developed dynamometer. .............................55

Figure 43 Graph between Damage and Torque .......................................................56

Figure 44 Transmission Dynamometer....................................................................57

Figure 45 A typical Wind tunnel .............................................................................59

Figure 46 A schematic of wind tunnel .....................................................................60

Figure 47 Diagram of an open-circuit wind Tunnel ................................................60

Figure 48 Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel....................................................................61

Figure 49 Wind Tunnel Design by NASA...............................................................61

Figure 50 Schematic diagram of forces acting on a wind blade ..............................64

Figure 51Pressure and viscous forces acting on a differential element of an area of
wind blade ................................................................................................................64

Figure 52 Lift Force acting on a small particle. .......................................................65

Figure 53 Patterns of flow around air foil...............................................................66

Figure 54 A graph between Lift force and Velocity ................................................68

Figure 55 A graph between Drag force and Velocity ..............................................68

Figure 56 Tip vortex at nominal wind speed 12 m/s ...............................................69

University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_7
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Experiment No. 1

Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal
Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance

1. Objective:

The Objective of this Experiment is to understand the Working of Pyroheliometer & Study
comprehensively to Calculate the Direct Normal Irridiance & Global Horizotal Irridiance.

2. Experimental Setup:

Figure 1 Measurement of Direct Normal Irridiance (DNI) using Pyrheliometer

Figure 2 Measurement of Global Horizontal Irridiance (GHI) using Pryheliometer
Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance_8

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