# Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance

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This experiment focuses on studying the working of a pyrheliometer and calculating direct normal irradiance and global horizontal irradiance. The experiment was conducted at the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.

## Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal Irradiance and Global Horizontal Irradiance

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ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
University of Engineering and Technology
Lahore

Assignment of:

Energy Resources and Utilization-Laboratory

Assignment Type:

Lab Report

Submitted To:

Sir Syed Saqib

Submitted By:

2018-ME-133

Ahsan Junaid

________________________________________________________________
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133

1.
Objective: .............................................................................................................8
2.
Experimental Setup:.............................................................................................8
3.
Literature Review ................................................................................................9
3.1. Pyrheliometer:
.................................................................................................9
3.2. Main Components of Pyrheliometer:
.............................................................9
3.3. Pyrheliometer a Solar Irriadiance Sensor: ....................................................10

3.4. Difference between Pyrheliometer & Pyranometer: ....................................10

3.5. Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI): ..................................................................11

3.6. Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI): ............................................................11

4.
Working of a Pyrheliometer: .............................................................................11
5.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................12
6.
7.
Applications of Pyrheliometer: ..........................................................................13
8.
Characteristics of Pyrheliometer: ......................................................................16
9.
References ..........................................................................................................16
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................17
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................17
2.1. Declination: ...................................................................................................18

2.2. Solar elevation ..............................................................................................19

Zenith angle ..........................................................................................................19

Solar Azimuth Angle: ...........................................................................................19

3.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................20
4.
Graphs ................................................................................................................21
5.
Conclusion .........................................................................................................21
6.
7.
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
8.
References:.........................................................................................................23
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................24
2.
Experimental Setup ............................................................................................24
3.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................25
3.1. Evacuated Tube Collectors ...........................................................................25

3.1.3.1 Direct-flow evacuated-tube collectors: ...................................................27

3.1.3.2
Heat pipe evacuated-tube collectors: ....................................................28
Integrated Tank Solar Collectors: .........................................................................29

4.
Experimental Setup:...........................................................................................30
5.
Measuring Instruments and device: ...................................................................30
6.
Experimentation Data Analysis: ........................................................................30
6.1. Experimental Results: ...................................................................................31

7.
Conclusion: ........................................................................................................31
8.
References ..........................................................................................................32
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................33
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................33
2.1.
Parabolic Trough Collector: ........................................................................33
2.1.1.
Working Principle ....................................................................................34
2.1.2.
Solar Thermal Power System ...................................................................34
2.1.2.2.
Solar Power Towers ..............................................................................35
2.1.2.3.
Solar Dish Systems ...............................................................................35
3.
Optical and Thermal Analysis of High Concentration Parabolic Trough
Collectors .................................................................................................................37

3.1.
Structure ......................................................................................................37
3.1.1. Geometry: ..................................................................................................37

3.1.2. Solar Tracking: ..........................................................................................37

3.1.3. Reflectors: ...................................................................................................37

3.1.3.1. Photogrammetry: ....................................................................................37

3.1.3.2. Deflectometry: ........................................................................................38
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
3.1.4. Reflectivity Measurement:.........................................................................39

4.
Abrasion Test: ....................................................................................................39
5.
6.
7.
References ..........................................................................................................41
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................42
2.
Experimental Setup:...........................................................................................42
3.
Theory: ...............................................................................................................43
4.
Procedure: ..........................................................................................................44
5.
Calculations and observations: ..........................................................................45
6.
Result .................................................................................................................47
7.
References ..........................................................................................................48
1.
Objective: ...........................................................................................................49
2.
Literature Review ..............................................................................................49
2.1. Dynamometer: ...............................................................................................49

2.2. Ac dynamometer: ..........................................................................................50

2.3. Types of Dynamometers: ..............................................................................51

2.3.1.
Eddy Current Dynamometer ....................................................................51
2.4.
Applications for Dynamometers .................................................................53
2.4.1.
Data Acquisition .......................................................................................54
2.5.
Dynamometer Design for measuring the cutting force on Turning ............54
2.6.
Data acquisition ...........................................................................................55
2.7.
2.8.
3.
Rpm and rotating torque ....................................................................................56
4.
Results:...............................................................................................................57
5.
References:.........................................................................................................58
1.
Objective ............................................................................................................59
2.
Experimental Setup ............................................................................................59
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
3.
Literature View ..................................................................................................59
3.1. Wind Tunnel ..................................................................................................59

3.2. “Types of wind tunnels” ...............................................................................60

3.2.1. “Open vs closed circuit wind tunnel” .......................................................60

3.2.2.
“Subsonic vs Supersonic wind tunnel” ...................................................61
3.2.3.
“Education vs research wind tunnel” .......................................................62
3.2.4.
“Laminar vs turbulent wind tunnel ........................................................62
3.3. Parts of Wind Tunnel ....................................................................................62

a.
“Inlet duct” .....................................................................................................62
b.
“Test section” ..............................................................................................62
c.
“Diffuser” .......................................................................................................63
d.
“Axial flow fan unit” ...................................................................................63
e.
“Control console” ...........................................................................................63
f.
“Attachments” ................................................................................................63
i.
“Strain gauge balance” ...................................................................................63
ii.
“Multi bank manometer” .............................................................................63
3.4.
Aerodynamics Fundamentals ......................................................................64
Expression For “Lift Force” .................................................................................65

4.
Procedure ...........................................................................................................67
5.
Results ................................................................................................................67
6.
Graphs ................................................................................................................68
7.
Simulation using Ansys .....................................................................................69
8.
Conclusion and Recommendations ...................................................................70
9.
References ..........................................................................................................71
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Table of Figures.

Figure 1 Measurement of Direct Normal Irridiance (DNI) using Pyrheliometer ......8

Figure 2 Measurement of Global Horizontal Irridiance (GHI) using Pryheliometer

................................................................................................................................
....8
Figure 3 A Pyrheliometer pointed at the Sun to measure the Solar Irridiance
coming directly from the Sun
....................................................................................9
Figure 4 Main Components of a Pyrheliometer
........................................................9
Figure 5 Pyrometers measure Direct Solar radiation ..............................................10

Figure 6 Spectral Distribution of DNI Data from ASTM G-173-03 Referance
Spectra. Red line shows typical spectral response curve of Quartz ........................11

Figure 7 DNI as measured by DR30 Pyrheliometer ...............................................12

Figure 8 Pyrheliometers measure only sunlight from a small area around the sun,
characterized by an opening half-angle of 2.5 ° ......................................................12

Figure 9 Standard Pyrheliometer Angles ................................................................13

Figure 10 Pyrheliometer in Scientific Metrological ...............................................14

Figure 11 Observations of Climate .........................................................................14

Figure 12 Testing Research of Material .................................................................14

Figure 13 Estimation of Solar Collector Efficiency ...............................................15

Figure 14 Use in PV Devices ..................................................................................15

Figure 15 Production of electricity from solar energy on large scale .....................17

Figure 16 Solar Zenith angle....................................................................................19

Figure 17 Solar Azimuth Angle ...............................................................................19

Figure 18 Variance of reflectance with angle of incidence .....................................21

Figure 19 Experimental Setup .................................................................................24

Figure 20 Schematic Diagram of Evacuated Tube Collector ..................................25

Figure 21 A typical example of Digital Display ......................................................27

Figure 22 A Typical Diagram of components of Evacuated Tube Collector ..........27

Figure 23 Schematic Diagram of Direct flow Evacuated Tube Solar Collector .....28

Figure 24 Integrated Tank Solar Collectors ............................................................29

Figure 25 Parabolic Trough Collector ....................................................................33

Figure 26 Parabolic Trough Collector with single axis solar tracker .....................34

Figure 27 Linear Fresnel Reflectors ........................................................................35

Figure 28 Solar Power Towers ................................................................................35

Figure 29 Solar Dish systems ..................................................................................35
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Figure 30 Analysis by photogrammetry of a common collector element ...............38

Figure 31 Measurement principle of Deflectometry of a reflecting surface ...........38

Figure 32 The bar projection field for the deflectometry and the reflecting image
on the mirrors of an inspected heliostat ...................................................................39

Figure 33 Sketch of the laser scanner VSHOT ........................................................39

Figure 34 Graph for Diurnal wind speed variations ...............................................45

Figure 35 Daily maximum, minimum, and mean wind speed variations ................46

Figure 36 Monthly mean speed wind variation .....................................................46

Figure 37 Schematic Diagram of Dynamometer .....................................................50

Figure 38 Eddy Current Dynamometer ...................................................................51

Figure 39 Power Dynamometer ...............................................................................52

Figure 40 Engine Dynamometer ..............................................................................53

Figure 41 Schematic representation of experimental set-up..................................55

Figure 42 The photo of designed and developed dynamometer. .............................55

Figure 43 Graph between Damage and Torque .......................................................56

Figure 44 Transmission Dynamometer....................................................................57

Figure 45 A typical Wind tunnel .............................................................................59

Figure 46 A schematic of wind tunnel .....................................................................60

Figure 47 Diagram of an open-circuit wind Tunnel ................................................60

Figure 48 Closed Circuit Wind Tunnel....................................................................61

Figure 49 Wind Tunnel Design by NASA...............................................................61

Figure 50 Schematic diagram of forces acting on a wind blade ..............................64

Figure 51Pressure and viscous forces acting on a differential element of an area of

Figure 52 Lift Force acting on a small particle. .......................................................65

Figure 53 Patterns of flow around air foil...............................................................66

Figure 54 A graph between Lift force and Velocity ................................................68

Figure 55 A graph between Drag force and Velocity ..............................................68

Figure 56 Tip vortex at nominal wind speed 12 m/s ...............................................69

University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore
ERU-Lab Reports 2018-ME-133
Experiment No. 1

Study of Pyrheliometer to Calculate Direct Normal

1. Objective:

The Objective of this Experiment is to understand the Working of Pyroheliometer & Study
comprehensively to Calculate the Direct Normal Irridiance & Global Horizotal Irridiance.

2. Experimental Setup:

Figure 1 Measurement of Direct Normal Irridiance (DNI) using Pyrheliometer

Figure 2 Measurement of Global Horizontal Irridiance (GHI) using Pryheliometer

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