QUADRIPLEGICSINTRODUCTIONQuadriplegics are the people who are partially or completely paralysed. In this paralysistheir both arms and legs are paralysed. This paralytic attack occurs due to an injury inspinal cord or any disease in the region of the neck.It has been seen that many researchers had worked on the grounds of accessibility optionsfor quadriplegics so that they can easily access the computing devices. The main keybehind this is that a PC is generally adaptable to different inputs and outputs.It is also called as tetraplegia which is a spinal cord injury caused above the upper part ofbody or within thesections of cervical of C1-C8. This type of injury results in somedegree of paralysis sometimes in all four limbs—the legs and arms. The degree ofparalysis varies depending on the nature of the injury, the extent to which you'veundergone rehabilitative therapy, and oftentimes on factors that are not yet well-understood—maybe even a bit of luck (Zawn Villines, 2015).Millions of people in the world that are diagnosed with different forms of paralysis likeparaplegia and quadriplegia. Alternative solutions are utilised for completing everydaytasks by such people suffering from quadriplegia that the rest of us take for granted.Luckily, the cutting edge of assistive devices and technologies improve the ease withwhich many of these individuals navigate a world designed for those with full use of theirarms and legs (Dr. Lynne, et al., 2014).Almost 10 percent of world’s population is living with some form of disability which canbe physical, sensory and cognitive that makes daily activities too difficult. Quadriplegicsare the people having disability either in form of arms or legs which have to depend onsome technologies to work on computer if they wanted to do so. Quadriplegics camparticipate in many fields with the help of devices available for them so that they can earnon their own and live their life peacefully without the aid of anyone else.PROBLEM STATEMENTQuadriplegics are currently participating in the field of computing with limitedaccessibility options with a rapid development and evaluation of a head controlled HCI(Human Computer Interface) that has the functions just like a traditional keyboard ormouse (Clinics, 2009).The projects of HCI are meant for people who have the disability either physical,cognitive, sensory or communicative. This technology of HCI assists the quadriplegics inthe accessing of computing devices.People with quadriplegia cannot move their body below the neck due to paralysis of anindividual’s limbs and torso. Therefore, it becomes necessary to draw the attention of theteam to get a solution through innovative design and background research, so that a useris allowed to operate a computer without the use of the user’s hands. A hands-free device suitable for the user is founded according to the user’s limits andcapabilities before beginning this project. While the most important task is the designingof an assistive computer input device so as to make the life of an quadriplegics easy whileinteracting with computer systems. It must be ensured that the user does not forfeit allphysical activity involving their shoulders, neck, and head; as required by the sponsor ofthis project. The final goal of any team project must be to design a device that can effectively playvideo games, but allowing the client to use a computer without relying entirely ondictation software, enabling her to utilize the freedom of on-screen, non-linearmovements to organize computer files and have the opportunity to utilize drawing
programs, such as paint, while maintaining some form of physical activity for our user(Dr. Lynne, et al., 2014). CONCLUSIONSome of the accessibility options with the help of which quadriplegics can easilyparticipate in the field of computing are as follows:1) AbleNet’s Impulse System-: In this type of system there is a small device that is fittedto the user’s skin which has replaced the old traditional keyboard and mouse. This smalldevice uses the technology of electromyography through which small electrical impulsescan be sent from the brain to the muscle by sensing, amplifying and transmitting them.2) Eyegaze Edge-: In this technology eye motion is translated with the help of a smallexternal processing unit into a screen action thereby using a high speed infrared cameramounted under system’s monitor (By Brain, 2010).The most common input which the people with quadriplegics have that further helpsthem to develop methods to help quadriplegics in computing are as follows:1) Switches, joysticks and trackballs which are activated with motion of a body part.Such devices helps quadriplegics in controlling the video games more effectively oncomputers. They allow to move the cursor around the screen just like a mouse wheneverit is required. 2) Eye Controlled Mouse Movement is a technology where a clever deviceknown as GT3D that is invented by British scientists is used which has the ability tocontrol the computers with the movement of eyes. Using this device quadriplegic cancontrol their mouse movements simply by moving their eyes.3) Sometimes virtual keyboards is emulated by certain programs on computer monitors.This helps the quadriplegics by overlaying the screen and enables the quadriplegics totype by using mouse to click keyboard’s characters.4) Voice Recognition Systems are also available as input devices for quadriplegics toinput their texts on computer screen. This works by recognising the voice of the user.5) SNP devices known as “sip and puff” which is a technology specially meant forquadriplegics which enables them to control onscreen movements simply by breathing. Inthis a special wand is present which has to be put on head or chin. This allows to sendsignals to the keyboard by use of air pressure by sipping that is inhaling process orpuffing that is exhausting on the wand (4 Way, 2014).6) Mouth stylus (mouth stick) which is a good input device for quadriplegics who havegood head control and whose upper body has impairment. This acts like a finger withwhich one can easily select options on the screen and navigate the device.7) There is another input device used nowadays known as Tecla Shield that has thegreater portability for the quadriplegics. This has been designed to adapt quickly todifferent inputs and is used with 1-6 input switches. The utilisation of joystick with this isvery fast.The accessibility options that have been currently invented for the quadriplegics are asfollows:1) Adaptive Stylus2) Tecla Shield3) Mouth Stylus4) Pogo stylusThe detailed working of all the accessibility options are as follows:
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Accessibility Options for Quadriplegics in Computinglg...