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The assignment involves analyzing data from two experiments: the Worrigone placebo experiment and the Impulsivity experiment. In the Worrigone experiment, an independent-samples t-test was performed to compare the mean neuroticism scores between the Worrigone group and the Placebo group. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (t = 0.173, p = 0.863). In the Impulsivity experiment, a t-test was used to compare the mean dysfunctional impulsivity scores between male and female respondents. The results showed that females had higher mean scores than males (M = 30.71, SD = 4.48 vs. M = 27.98, SD = 4.05), with a statistically significant difference (t = 2.961, p = 0.005). The effect size was moderate (r = 0.615).

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Q U E S T I O N 1

1. Task 1

To examine the placebo effect, you jump in the new Heisenberg Time-Machine(TM) and go

back to the 1960s to find a group of 40 patients labelled ‘Neurotic’ by psychiatrists. You

tell 20 of these patients to take a new pill called ‘Worrigone’ three times a day for one

month – but it’s just a sugar pill. The second 20 you tell:

“At the intake conference we discussed your problems and your condition, and it was

decided to consider further the possibility and the need of treatment for you before

we make a final recommendation next month. Meanwhile, we have a month between

now and your next appointment, and we would like to do something to give you

some relief from your symptoms. Many different kinds of tranquilizers and similar

pills have been used for conditions such as yours, and many of them have helped.

Many people with your kind of condition have also been helped by what are

sometimes called "sugar pills," and we feel that a so-called sugar pill may help you,

too. Do you know what a sugar pill is? A sugar pill is a pill with no medicine in it at all.

I think this pill will help you as it has helped so many others. Take this pill three times

a day for the next month."

You measure Neuroticism following treatment using a well-established, valid and reliable

questionnaire. Use an independent t-test test to examine the hypothesis that a placebo

presented as an active medicine is more effective than a placebo explicitly presented as

a placebo. The data can be found in SPSS datafile attached below

(IS_ttest_placebo.sav)

IS_ttest_placebo.sav

Park, L. C., &Covi, U. (1965). An exploration of neurotic patients’

responses to placebo when its inert content is disclosed. Archives

of General Psychiatry, 12, 336-345. Retrieved

from http://www.leecrandallparkmd.net/researchpages/placebo1.ht

ml

__________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were (enter

'higher' or 'lower') to a degree for the Worrigone placebo (M = , SD = ) in comparison to

the Sugar Pill placebo (M = , SD = ) group.

The SPSS output is given below

Group Statistics

Placebo type N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Neuroticism Score

Worrigone 20 27.8000 10.59593 2.36932

Sugar Pill 20 27.2500 9.43607 2.10997

1. Task 1

To examine the placebo effect, you jump in the new Heisenberg Time-Machine(TM) and go

back to the 1960s to find a group of 40 patients labelled ‘Neurotic’ by psychiatrists. You

tell 20 of these patients to take a new pill called ‘Worrigone’ three times a day for one

month – but it’s just a sugar pill. The second 20 you tell:

“At the intake conference we discussed your problems and your condition, and it was

decided to consider further the possibility and the need of treatment for you before

we make a final recommendation next month. Meanwhile, we have a month between

now and your next appointment, and we would like to do something to give you

some relief from your symptoms. Many different kinds of tranquilizers and similar

pills have been used for conditions such as yours, and many of them have helped.

Many people with your kind of condition have also been helped by what are

sometimes called "sugar pills," and we feel that a so-called sugar pill may help you,

too. Do you know what a sugar pill is? A sugar pill is a pill with no medicine in it at all.

I think this pill will help you as it has helped so many others. Take this pill three times

a day for the next month."

You measure Neuroticism following treatment using a well-established, valid and reliable

questionnaire. Use an independent t-test test to examine the hypothesis that a placebo

presented as an active medicine is more effective than a placebo explicitly presented as

a placebo. The data can be found in SPSS datafile attached below

(IS_ttest_placebo.sav)

IS_ttest_placebo.sav

Park, L. C., &Covi, U. (1965). An exploration of neurotic patients’

responses to placebo when its inert content is disclosed. Archives

of General Psychiatry, 12, 336-345. Retrieved

from http://www.leecrandallparkmd.net/researchpages/placebo1.ht

ml

__________________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were (enter

'higher' or 'lower') to a degree for the Worrigone placebo (M = , SD = ) in comparison to

the Sugar Pill placebo (M = , SD = ) group.

The SPSS output is given below

Group Statistics

Placebo type N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

Neuroticism Score

Worrigone 20 27.8000 10.59593 2.36932

Sugar Pill 20 27.2500 9.43607 2.10997

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Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of

the Difference

Lower Upper

Neuroticism

Score

Equal variances

assumed

.878 .355 .173 38 .863 .55000 3.17264 -5.87268 6.97268

Equal variances

not assumed

.173 37.500 .863 .55000 3.17264 -5.87549 6.97549

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were higher

to a degree for the Worrigone placebo (M =27.8 , SD = 10.6) in comparison to the Sugar

Pill placebo (M =27.25 , SD = 9.43) group.

10 points

Q U E S T I O N 2

1. Task 1_Q2: Briefly outline the assumptions required for parametric tests such as the

Independent-samples t-test. Does the data from the Placebo experiment (Task 1) appear

to meet such assumptions?

Normality Assumption

Levene's Test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of

the Difference

Lower Upper

Neuroticism

Score

Equal variances

assumed

.878 .355 .173 38 .863 .55000 3.17264 -5.87268 6.97268

Equal variances

not assumed

.173 37.500 .863 .55000 3.17264 -5.87549 6.97549

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were higher

to a degree for the Worrigone placebo (M =27.8 , SD = 10.6) in comparison to the Sugar

Pill placebo (M =27.25 , SD = 9.43) group.

10 points

Q U E S T I O N 2

1. Task 1_Q2: Briefly outline the assumptions required for parametric tests such as the

Independent-samples t-test. Does the data from the Placebo experiment (Task 1) appear

to meet such assumptions?

Normality Assumption

Here, we see that the distribution of Neuroticism score has longer tail towards the right side

of the normal curve, indicating that the distribution is skewed right. Thus, the assumption of

normality is not satisfied

Homogeneity of Variances

Levene’s test was used to determine the Homogeneity of Variances assumption. Here, the

value of f test statistic is 0.878 and its corresponding p – value is 0.355 > 0.05, indicating that

the assumption of homogeneity of variances is satisfied

Q U E S T I O N 3

1. Task 1_Q3:

An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =0.173 , p = 0.863, suggesting that the

Worrigone group did not appear to differ significantly from the Placebo group. The effect

size was found to be r =0.052 , which can be considered weak

20 points

Q U E S T I O N 4

1. Task 1_Q4: Create and upload a simpleAPA formatted Figure which best summarises

the data from the Placebo experiment visually (the optimal approach is to convert to

Adobe pdf before uploading!)

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were higher to a

degree for the Worrigone placebo (M =27.8 , SD = 10.6) in comparison to the Sugar Pill

placebo (M =27.25 , SD = 9.43) group. Levene’s test was used to determine the

Homogeneity of Variances assumption. Here, the value of f test statistic is 0.878 and its

corresponding p – value is 0.355 > 0.05, indicating that the assumption of homogeneity of

variances is satisfied. An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =0.173 , p = 0.863,

suggesting that the Worrigone group did not appear to differ significantly from the Placebo

group. The effect size was found to be r =0.052 , which can be considered weak

of the normal curve, indicating that the distribution is skewed right. Thus, the assumption of

normality is not satisfied

Homogeneity of Variances

Levene’s test was used to determine the Homogeneity of Variances assumption. Here, the

value of f test statistic is 0.878 and its corresponding p – value is 0.355 > 0.05, indicating that

the assumption of homogeneity of variances is satisfied

Q U E S T I O N 3

1. Task 1_Q3:

An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =0.173 , p = 0.863, suggesting that the

Worrigone group did not appear to differ significantly from the Placebo group. The effect

size was found to be r =0.052 , which can be considered weak

20 points

Q U E S T I O N 4

1. Task 1_Q4: Create and upload a simpleAPA formatted Figure which best summarises

the data from the Placebo experiment visually (the optimal approach is to convert to

Adobe pdf before uploading!)

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were higher to a

degree for the Worrigone placebo (M =27.8 , SD = 10.6) in comparison to the Sugar Pill

placebo (M =27.25 , SD = 9.43) group. Levene’s test was used to determine the

Homogeneity of Variances assumption. Here, the value of f test statistic is 0.878 and its

corresponding p – value is 0.355 > 0.05, indicating that the assumption of homogeneity of

variances is satisfied. An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =0.173 , p = 0.863,

suggesting that the Worrigone group did not appear to differ significantly from the Placebo

group. The effect size was found to be r =0.052 , which can be considered weak

Q U E S T I O N 5

1. Task 2

Using the Impulsivity data found in IS_Impulse.sav (below), A researcher

was interested in the differences in Impulsivity between the Genders, her

hypothesis was that Males would show greater Dysfunctional Impulsivity

(DI) than Females.

Produce an APA formatted results section summarising the data, providing

an appropriate figure, presenting the results of the appropriate inferential

test (along with effect size) and concluding in plain english how the results

relate to the original hypothesis (again, best to create in word, then

convert and upload in pdf format).

IS_impulse(2).sav

1. Attach File

The SPSS output is given below

Group Statistics

gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

DI_new

Female 45 30.7111 4.48037 .66789

Male 41 27.9756 4.04653 .63196

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of

the Difference

Lower Upper

DI_new

Equal variances

assumed

.690 .409 2.961 84 .004 2.73550 .92389 .89824 4.57276

Equal variances

not assumed

2.975 83.995 .004 2.73550 .91949 .90700 4.56401

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Dysfunctional Impulsivity were

higher for female respondents (M = 30.71 , SD = 4.48) in comparison to the male respondents

1. Task 2

Using the Impulsivity data found in IS_Impulse.sav (below), A researcher

was interested in the differences in Impulsivity between the Genders, her

hypothesis was that Males would show greater Dysfunctional Impulsivity

(DI) than Females.

Produce an APA formatted results section summarising the data, providing

an appropriate figure, presenting the results of the appropriate inferential

test (along with effect size) and concluding in plain english how the results

relate to the original hypothesis (again, best to create in word, then

convert and upload in pdf format).

IS_impulse(2).sav

1. Attach File

The SPSS output is given below

Group Statistics

gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

DI_new

Female 45 30.7111 4.48037 .66789

Male 41 27.9756 4.04653 .63196

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for

Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-

tailed)

Mean

Difference

Std. Error

Difference

95% Confidence Interval of

the Difference

Lower Upper

DI_new

Equal variances

assumed

.690 .409 2.961 84 .004 2.73550 .92389 .89824 4.57276

Equal variances

not assumed

2.975 83.995 .004 2.73550 .91949 .90700 4.56401

From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Dysfunctional Impulsivity were

higher for female respondents (M = 30.71 , SD = 4.48) in comparison to the male respondents

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(M =27.98, SD = 4.05) group. Levene’s test was used to determine the Homogeneity of

Variances assumption. Here, the value of f test statistic is 0.690 and its corresponding p –

value is 0.409 > 0.05, indicating that the assumption of homogeneity of variances is satisfied.

An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =2.961, p = 0.005, suggesting that the female

Dysfunctional Impulsivity differ significantly from the male counterparts. The effect size was

found to be r =0.615 , which can be considered moderate. Therefore, there is sufficient

evidence to conclude that Males would show greater Dysfunctional Impulsivity (DI) than

Females

Variances assumption. Here, the value of f test statistic is 0.690 and its corresponding p –

value is 0.409 > 0.05, indicating that the assumption of homogeneity of variances is satisfied.

An independent-samples t-test was performed, t =2.961, p = 0.005, suggesting that the female

Dysfunctional Impulsivity differ significantly from the male counterparts. The effect size was

found to be r =0.615 , which can be considered moderate. Therefore, there is sufficient

evidence to conclude that Males would show greater Dysfunctional Impulsivity (DI) than

Females

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