QUESTION 1. Task 1. To examine the placebo effect, you

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QUESTION 11.Task 1To examine the placebo effect, you jump in the new Heisenberg Time-Machine(TM)and goback to the 1960s to find a group of 40 patients labelled ‘Neurotic’ by psychiatrists. Youtell 20 of these patients to take a new pill called ‘Worrigone’ three times a day for onemonth – but it’s just a sugar pill. The second 20 you tell:“At the intake conference we discussed your problems and your condition, and it wasdecided to consider further the possibility and the need of treatment for you beforewe make a final recommendation next month. Meanwhile, we have a month betweennow and your next appointment, and we would like to do something to give yousome relief from your symptoms. Many different kinds of tranquilizers and similarpills have been used for conditions such as yours, and many of them have helped.Many people with your kind of condition have also been helped by what aresometimes called "sugar pills," and we feel that a so-called sugar pill may help you,too. Do you know what a sugar pill is? A sugar pill is a pill with no medicine in it at all.I think this pill will help you as it has helped so many others. Take this pill three timesa day for the next month."You measure Neuroticism following treatment using a well-established, valid and reliablequestionnaire. Use an independent t-testtest to examine the hypothesis that a placebopresented as an active medicine is more effective than a placebo explicitly presented asa placebo. The data can be found inSPSS datafile attached below(IS_ttest_placebo.sav)IS_ttest_placebo.savPark, L. C., &Covi, U. (1965). An exploration of neurotic patients’responses to placebo when its inert content is disclosed.Archivesof General Psychiatry, 12, 336-345. Retrievedfrom the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores were(enter'higher' or 'lower') to a degree for the Worrigone placebo(M=,SD=)in comparison tothe Sugar Pill placebo(M=,SD=)group.The SPSS output is given belowGroup StatisticsPlacebo typeNMeanStd. DeviationStd. Error MeanNeuroticism ScoreWorrigone2027.800010.595932.36932Sugar Pill2027.25009.436072.10997
Independent Samples TestLevene's Test forEquality of Variancest-test for Equality of MeansFSig.tdfSig. (2-tailed)MeanDifferenceStd. ErrorDifference95% Confidence Interval ofthe DifferenceLowerUpperNeuroticismScoreEqual variancesassumed.878.355.17338.863.550003.17264-5.872686.97268Equal variancesnot assumed.17337.500.863.550003.17264-5.875496.97549From the data we found that following treatment, Mean Neuroticism scores werehigherto a degree for the Worrigone placebo(M=27.8,SD=10.6)in comparison to the SugarPill placebo(M=27.25,SD=9.43)group.10 pointsQUESTION 21.Task 1_Q2: Briefly outline the assumptions required for parametric tests such asthe Independent-samplest-test. Does the data from the Placebo experiment (Task 1)appear to meet such assumptions?Normality Assumption
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