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Running head: RELIGION, STATE AND GLOBAL SOCIETYRELIGION, STATE AND GLOBAL SOCIETYName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1RELIGION, STATE AND GLOBAL SOCIETY1.What is religious fundamentalism? Is it a ‘throwback’ to medieval times, as someargue, or a product of modernity? (250words)Religious fundamentalism means the conviction of individuals in the complete power of asacred religious text or teachings of a specific religious leader. The term was first introduced inthe bookThe Fundamentalsand since has been used to describe the extreme believers ofreligion. Religious fundamentalists hold the view that their religion is superior to other religionsand hence, others should follow their religion. An example might be given of the SunniteMuslims living in the Western countries as immigrants who demonstrate fundamentalist attitudeas compared to the native Christians. Religious fundamentalism has also been described as oneof the major reasons for the rise and spread of terrorism across the globe in the modern era.Although some argue that religious fundamentalism arose during the medieval times, it ishowever believed that the true nature of this term surfaced in the modern era. In the medievalages, Christianity as a religion was propagated throughout the world and other religious believersopposed it. With time, Christian fundamentalists were subdued by the aggressivefundamentalism of Islamic followers. The beginning of the modern era, especially the 20thcentury saw an upsurge in Islamic fundamentalism that resulted in the rise of terrorism. Severalfactors have attributed to this rise; one major factor is the dominance and control of the Westernperspective into the Eastern world. This opposition of western dominance in the modern worldgave rise to extreme fundamentalist attitude. Therefore, it is not wrong to state that religiousfundamentalism is actually a product of modernity.2.What are the core claims of the ‘New’ Atheists? What similarities can be observedbetween the New Atheists and the religious fundamentalists they criticise?
2RELIGION, STATE AND GLOBAL SOCIETYClassical atheists were somber in their views about religion and God whereas NewAtheists (NAs) demonstrate aggressive attitude. Philosophy was the base from which classicalatheists argued against the existence of God while New Atheists consider rejecting God’sexistence from the perspective of Science. The core claims made by New Atheists can thus beidentified as:Faith is an issue of false propositional idea and only science can heal itScience is the only way by which people can know about the world or the universeReligion is the most general type of superstition and only science can end thissuperstitionThe needless sufferings and violence in the contemporary world are a result of religiousbeliefReligion is a vulnerable idea and it would not be around for longThe aggressive criticism of religious fundamentalism or even religion in general by theNew Atheists is not new. They have been criticizing the religious leaders and the followers ofevery religion for failing to justify their acts of terror and prejudice in the name of religion.However, certain similarities are evident in the views of both New Atheists and religiousfundamentalists.The first similarity is that both NAs and religious fundamentalists implicitly agree toshare a common categorization of religionSecondly, both fundamentalists and New Atheists possess an unambiguous, factual andapparent understanding of Scripture