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Report | Microorganisms in Civil Engineering

Added on - 15 Mar 2020

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Report on the Impacts of Microorganisms in Civil Engineering1REPORT ON THE IMPACTS OF MICROORGANISMS IN CIVIL ENGINEERINGA Report Paper on Microorganisms ByStudent’s NameName of the ProfessorInstitutional AffiliationCity/StateYear/Month/Day
Report on the Impacts of Microorganisms in Civil Engineering2INTRODUCTIONA microorganism is a microscopic organism which may be unicellular or multicellular. Thescientific study of microorganism stated with their observation under a microscope by vanLeeuwenhoek in 1670s and also Louis pasture found that microorganisms were capable ofcausing food spoilage by performing the spontaneous generation theory in 1850s. Robert Kochdiscovered that microorganisms caused the disease like cholera, anthrax, and tuberculosis in the1880s. Microorganisms, comprise the unicellular organisms and are very diverse includingbacteria, and archeae that are the domain of life of microorganisms.Microorganisms are grouped as eukaryotes like fungi and algae and prokaryotes likeprotozoans and protests. Microbes are very important in the culture and health of human, servingto produce enzymes, production of fuels, bioactive compounds, treatment of sewage andfermenting food. They are an essential tool as a model organism in biology and have been usedin bioterrorism and biological warfare. Microbes are the component of the soil fertility andinhuman they make up human microbiota and also are pathogens for infectious disease[ CITATIONQAs15 \l 1033 ].In this report, it is explained how microorganism is able to impact in the civil engineeringprojects. In the recent years, the understanding of the biodeterorations and befouling processes inthe civil engineering has increased. These processes involving the bacteria activity andmicroorganisms are of very important to every civil engineer in the range of the naturalenvironment and artificial systems they engineer. Examples of where the processes ofmicroorganism have significant effects include: corrosion, deterioration of the materials ofconstruction and the concrete materials, damage to the abstraction systems of groundwater flow
Report on the Impacts of Microorganisms in Civil Engineering3in bumps and pipes in pressure, clogging of the drainage and irrigation system, rock or soilalteration and also production of harmful gases[ CITATION Sat15 \l 1033 ].Microorganisms in infrastructureFigure 1: the effect of microorganism on the infrastructure through corrosionMicrobial induced corrosion is caused by the microorganisms that attack nonmetallic andmetallic materials. For the major infrastructure like motorway bridges, pipelines of gas andliquid transmission, ships and railways and present threat that lead to high cost of repair.microscopic organisms are damaging the gas and oil industries’ that are types of infrastructure,bacteria that cause corrosion damage billions of dollars of gas and oil infrastructure everyyear .corrosion caused by bacteria leads failure of the materials which is very costly, delay in theproductions business interruption and accidental release into environment[ CITATION Jon10 \l1033 ].Pipelines and other gas and oil equipment are exposed to the soil, seawater, and freshwaterand are very vulnerable because of corrosion caused by the bacteria. Unchecked bacteria cangrow quickly and rapidly and as they grow the corrosion rate also accelerates. There are manyspecies known for corrosion in aluminum and copper alloys, stainless steel, and carbon steel.Examples are:Bacteria that reduce sulphate: their bacteria are found in sea water and in most casescause the corrosion damage to the infrastructure of pipelines, oil rigs and other structures.
Report on the Impacts of Microorganisms in Civil Engineering4They are species that can thrive in anaerobic areas. Their damage is as a result of theproduction of the hydrogen sulphide in their metabolic processes as a byproduct andcauses chemical reactions with iron that degrades the metal. Some also attach metalsdirectly through electron withdrawal from the iron through the corrosion influenced byelectrical microbial[ CITATION Tre12 \l 1033 ].Bacteria that are related to iron: these are associated with attacking the stainless steel inthe pipelines and other equipment of infrastructure. They use manganese or ferrous ironin their process of metabolism in the weakening metal.Bacteria that produce acid: these produce acids like acetic acid, carbonic acid, nitric acid,and sulfuric acid that corrodes metals used in building infrastructure[ CITATION Rog13 \l1033 ]The corrosion of the metals has serious economic impacts on the modern society. There is thecost that is directly related to the designs, manufacture, inspections and construction of thecorrosion protection.Solution and prevention techniques of microorganisms attackGiving the bacterial that corrodes the new method of medicine, by applying antifoulingmicroorganisms to tackle the bacteria responsible for the corrosion will result to a greenereconomy and will be a friendly way of fighting corrosion and maintaining infrastructure. Alsothrough using the anti-fouling microorganisms through substituting chemical compoundsgreenhouse gases will not be released to the environment. microorganism influenced corrosioncan also be prevented by regular cleaning of the mechanics if possible, they can also be treatedby chemical but not in excess to prevent the environment from the damages too from chemicals.Complete dry storage and drainage can also apply Silica gel and buffers can adjust the relativehumidity. The buffer will absorb and release moisture to the atmosphere. Dehumidifiers can beused to reduce the content of the moisture on air.[ CITATION Tre12 \l 1033 ].Environmental conditions
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