Water Challenges in India - Doc

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Running head: WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAWATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
1WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAExecutive SummaryThe report shed light on the water challenges and expected the outcome in India. The report hasalso analyzed the major problem that contaminated water has created. India has one of the largestpopulation and urban and rural states in India has faced several problems in India. Governmentpolicies and legislation from the early time period has stated different rules for the waterconservation process, however, all those policies are not promptly implemented and that is thereason behind the lacking of water challenges. Central, State and Local government interventionsover the water challenges are imposed on that occasion and that signifies the problem situationand mitigation processes of those hurdles. The importance of Indian National Water Policy andthe effective measure of that policy over the stated proposals are also highlighted in this report toestablish and understand the utility of fresh water. The importance of the policy and the probablequality analysis of water management and their implementation process has highlighted the caseand provide an exemplary where those necessary inputs have sustained and the positioning of thestate has improved in terms of quality water management. The chosen state was Gujarat and theirwater conservation process and theories that their state government has initiated has discussedfor the development. Therefore, it can be concluded that water challenges will be handled if theproficient mannerism of situation handling and long and short-term plans are implemented in aproper way. India would mitigate its water problems by applying those strategies and determinethose problems so that Government can again take some quick acceleration over the matter.
2WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIATable of ContentsIntroduction......................................................................................................................................3Analysis of water challenges in Rural Areas...................................................................................4Period or Phases of water strategies and policies........................................................................5The possible challenges in rural area...........................................................................................6Analysis of water challenges in Urban Areas..................................................................................8Settlement management in Water................................................................................................9The possible challenges in urban area.......................................................................................10Indian National Water Policy........................................................................................................13Challenges of the water management situation in country........................................................13Planning procedure....................................................................................................................15Case study of successful response to water challenge in India.....................................................16Case analysis in Gujarat.............................................................................................................16Innovative implementation........................................................................................................18Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................19References......................................................................................................................................22Appendices....................................................................................................................................29
3WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAIntroductionThe major problem in India is population. With the increasing nature of population waterscarcity and water management is the crucial issue for the nation. There are numerous watersources but most of the sources are not used or it staged for different reasons. In this report, thepossible infrastructure of the water resources and global advancement of water challenges isdiscussed. There are two sections in India, Urban and Rural and both these sections are facingsome water challenges and these water challenges create stagnancy in their development inagriculture, industries, and education as well (Files.Ethz.Ch. 2017). All these things areinterrelated as more than 700 million people are residing in 15 diverse environmental regionscovering about 1.42 million have the facility to contain this facility. Most of the constructivechallenges have faced by them. In a survey, it was proved that 37.7 million Indians are affectingfrom the water-borne diseases and these diseases are happened due to contaminated water(Files.Ethz.Ch. 2017). 1.5 million Children have affected due to diarrhea that impacted over thehuge challenge for the nation. Nation’s economy is also affected by the water problems 73million working days are lost due to that water contamination. This is the reason behind theeconomic fall as people are not coming for work and has created a burden of $600 million in ayear (Thatte, Chandrakant 2017).As per article 47 in the Indian constitution, providing clean drinking water facility andimproving the public health is the clear motive that Indian Government has stated to theircivilians but most of the people in India suffering from the water contaminated disease(Chaudhuri, Sriroop and Mimi 2016). The government has taken certain initiatives for thedevelopment of water structure in India and in the 10thplan government has estimated 1,105
4WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAbillion rupees for the safe water providence process. This is stated as an argument that theexpenses are enormous but it is also factual that in spite of such outflow lack of secure andprotected drinking water continues to be a major obstacle and a nationalized financial saddle.Underground water is the major source of water and most of the people intake this water thus asper the average water availability it is predicted as India will be a water-stressed nation in 2020(Files.Ethz.Ch. 2017). 85% of the population in India depends on the underground waterresources and that is the reason that underground water is considered as the most importantresources in India (Bajpai et al. 2015). Water quality monitoring is important parts of watervalidation and for this reason, more secure water hopefully deliver in most of the places in India.From the government data analysis, it was found that 91% of urban people and 94% of ruralpeople are healthy drinking water and that water is not contaminated as well.Analysis of water challenges in Rural AreasThere are certain water challenges in rural areas, however, there are several plans are notproceeding accordingly as the initiation from the government is not effective enough to coveythis. A good amount of 1,105 billion rupees has been already invested by the Government andthat was estimated of the safe drinking water. The five-year planning was implemented in 1951but still, most of the major struggles are imposed over that place and the economic burden andaffect have consolidated that place as well. India only has 4% of freshwater resources and thatwill be distributed to the population (Fischer et al. 2015).The challenges that are controlled by the government of India as 16% of worldpopulation are established in this nation. A huge amount of people have not intake this littleamount of fresh water, rather they have to intake contaminated water which creates the problem
5WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAof the people to sustain their physiological function in a systematic way. Most of the rain orsnow water is considered as the fresh water and around 4000 Billion Cubic Metres (BCM) allthese participate via seas and rivers. So the 92% of underground water is used in the agriculturalsector and industrial and domestic sector as well (Srinivasan et al 2017). Thus the problem ariseswhen the little amount of water was distributed in all these sectors and consumption of peoplewas less in that flow. Starting from the early independence there are several policiesimplemented by government and several committees are formed in this case to support thepopulation in terms of providing safe water to their civilians.Period or Phases of water strategies and policiesThe first committee was “The Environment Hygiene Committee (1949)” which willconsolidate the distribution of safe water to 90% people in 40 years’ time frame. There are someof the program launched and supported by UNICEF and in this phase, 254.90 Crore rupees wasspent and almost 17,000 piped water supply system has been introduced during that time.In the transition technological implementation,Accelerated Rural Water SupplyProgramme (ARWSP)has been introduced in 1972 for the better coverage of drinking water inIndia and that program assisted the states and Union territories of India (Dutta et al. 2015). In1986The National Drinking Water Mission (NDWM)has formed by the government and thatcreate a drafting of national water resources policies.In the session of restructuring system,Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission(RGNDWM)has introduced in 1991 and that amends the system of drinking water providencesand also constructs and reform the government processes in rural water needed areas. Almost90% of the infrastructure was funded by the government remaining contribution was made by the
6WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAcommunity contributing (Amerasinghe et al. 2013). The sector initially covers up 67 districts andall these districts have equally changed their identity by providing a good amount of water totheir region.At the modern section of the consolidation phase, the process started in 2000 and still thisconsolidation process of water development is going in most of the rural areas. The pattern ofSwajaldhara scheme was implemented in 2007 was a five-year plan that has been stated as the50:50 shares in between state and center. There is no need for community contribution rather theapproach of the 11thfive-year plan has encompassed all the individual possibilities like cleanwater drinking, access to food, public health care and maintaining hygiene and sanitation(Ghosh, Ruchira and Arun 2014). All these are inter-related and that becomes an extra burden forthe individual to maintain the economic and physical sustainable condition.The possible challenges in rural areaIn the operational level of water management, there are certain difficulties that havefound by the government while implementing the process (Hoekstra, Arjen 2014). These are theexecution of rural drinking process where 44.5% of funds have been used and 53.5% of the workhas completed. In other words, the additional approach of expenditure and the execution of thescheme are an important aspect of the government. These challenges are:The developmental framework of the key resources of water is the basic factor thatencompasses the water management.Contaminated water has iron, nitrates and all other impure impingement that became thereason behind people suffering as whenever they intake this water health unbalancingsituation was persisted.
7WATER CHALLENGES IN INDIAGroundwater exerting is the major problem for the Indian civilians as most of the peoplehave this water and for this reason, their agricultural aspect or the general aspect of livingdepends on that (Greenstone, Michael, andRema 2014). The quality of water has takenfrom the underground level is not at all appropriate in terms of the need for the people inrural area.The fertilizer and the use of pesticides in agricultural field are creating damage to waterand this is the reason water become contaminated and environment get polluted. Theeffort for groundwater and rainwater becomes limited if the organic pollutant has mixedwith water and that create a hazardous problem for the rural people.The behavioral practice and hygiene maintenance are important for mitigating thecontamination of water and that proclaims secure water deliverance to rural people (Gosset al. 2014). The profitability and dumping waste sometimes create a problem for thecontamination and for that reason a better profitability and accession is addressed by thegovernment.The Central Water Commission is responsible for the water irrigation and drinking waterprocesses and that is the reason behind the fresh surface water availability which isallocated in the Inter-state sessions. All those industries are based on that particular wateravailability and that determines the quality of investment in the economic section of thenation (Sivarasu, ChandiraSekaran, and Karthik 2015).The Ministry of Pollution Control Board and State Water Pollution Control Board wasgoing to make some of the sewage channel systems and these effluents are creating apassage for the contaminated water and those formulated situations are handled by thegovernment and community people (Duraiswami et al. 2016).
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