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REQUIRED READING1. Johnson, C (2007), ‘Negotiating value and quality in television historiography’ in Helen Wheatley (ed)Re-Viewing Television History: Critical Issues in Television Historiography, London: I. B. Taurispp 55-66.This chapter presents an assessment that when a particular text is well placed in a particular context, it can perform a particular function. The text can have a historical importance with high quality artistic creativity. The old television programs on being critically analysed by historian have been asked about their historical importance, artistic creativity and quality etc. One such difference is that the nature of creativity is found to be different and a relationship has been found between the quality and the artistic creativity on evaluating the television, and specifically historical television. The author suggests that the programming forms like studio drama and lightentertainment along with other forms can be termed as the ‘bread and butter’ television. But these factors are likely to conflict strongly with the contemporary dominant criteria of aesthetic value. However, the author suggests that while engaging in the evaluation of the old television programs and their quality, are offering a manner of challenging the dominant criteria for evaluating the quality of contemporary television. This evaluation has been helpful in shaping the writing of television’s history. According to the study, the television history has been concerned with the recent past and even has ubiquitous social and cultural form and is considered to be invaluable. With the help of history the people can see the everyday medium of television in a new refreshing manner, along with being highly surprising in manner. With the evaluation of the quality of the old television programmes, it is easier to provide the innovative methods towards watching the current debates associated with the quality television. 2. Gibbs, J. (2012) Mise-en-Scène: Film Style and Interpretation. London: Wallflower. ‘The elements of mise-en-scène’, pp 12-31
The article presents the various film styles and interpretation. The action and performance section has been described as the important base level and the décor, lighting, use of colour etc. along with the direction of action and through the skilful performance. It presents the importanceof delivering the line and the position of the actor. The authors suggests that writing about complexities and performance is difficult and the understanding of narratives is central to the performance which has been explained by the example of Barbara Bel Geddes’ performance in caught. The author explains the importance of eye movement and various other actions that define the performance of the actor. Further the author explained the concept of space which is considered to be vital expressive element which also includes the personal space between the performers. Further the author stresses upon the importance of placing camera at a correct position in order to determine the understanding of the scene. The correct position of the camera is seen to govern the access towards the action of the scene. The author suggests that the scene can be performed by using a series of shoots that will alternate between the character and his views that look off-screen and whereas a series of shoots can be used to represent the optical point of view. Similarly the concept of framing and interaction of all the elements have been given a critical position in the film style and interpretation. 3. Mulvey, L. (1975), ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”, Screen, Vol 16 Issue 3, pp 6-18.This article discusses the pleasure and pleasure that the traditional narrative film offers. It rangedfrom the scopophilic instincts to ego libido, to explaining the image of women as a raw material in cinema. This article discuses about the controlling of time dimension and space dimensions to produce as a measure of desire. The image of women has been presented as such due to the patriarchal historical presentation of the inferior women. The article suggests that the spectators
look beyond the to-be-looked-at-ness of the women and is herself presented in the way the spectators want her to watch. The author reflects on the festishistic representation of woman which seems to threaten to break the spell of illusion and further their erotic images shown to thespectators, the fixation of the spectator etc. The image of women, according to the article has continuously being stolen and used for in the end. According to the paper, the paradox of the phallocentrism is seen to have been dependent on the image of the castrated women in order to provide the deeper meaning to the world. The authors also emphasises that the destruction of the pleasure is a radical weapon. He further added that due to the technological advances the economic conditions of the cinematic production have changed which, in the present days is capitalist as well as artisanal in nature. With the help of the alternative cinema a space for cinemacan be provided which is considered to be radical in aesthetic sense as well as political sense and even challenges the basic assumptions of the mainstream film.4. Press, A. (2009), ‘Gender and Family in Television’s Golden Age and Beyond’ in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 625, No 1. pp 139-150.The article focuses on the image of women, family, work etc. on the television and discuses on how it has changed since the heyday of the network era. It focuses on how the women were shown to be confined in the family settings with restricted set of images in the early television. With the increase in the number of working women the television started showing the images of working women, leading a non-traditional life. But in early 90s, a postfeminist television was started where the ideas of liberal feminism along with a series of ambiguous images were challenged. With this, their role in the workplace was seen increasingly and a sense of nostalgia was yearned for the family life which they had displaced beautifully. The author stated that he
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