Research Methods for Bioscience - PDF

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Running head: RESEARCH METHODS FOR BIOSCIENCEResearch methods for bioscienceName of the student:Name of the university:Author note:
1RESEARCH METHODS FOR BIOSCIENCETable of ContentsIntroduction:....................................................................................................................................2Background and rationale:...........................................................................................................2Research question:.......................................................................................................................5Aims and objectives:....................................................................................................................5Null hypothesis:...........................................................................................................................5Methodology....................................................................................................................................7Research design...........................................................................................................................7Materials and participants............................................................................................................8Methods.......................................................................................................................................9Expected outcomes..........................................................................................................................9References......................................................................................................................................11Appendix........................................................................................................................................14
2RESEARCH METHODS FOR BIOSCIENCEIntroduction:Background and rationale:Microbial contamination can be defined as the accidental or non-intended introduction ofthe different types of microbes such as bacteria, yeast, mould, fungi, virus, prions, protozoa ortheir toxins and by-products. According to theWalia, Manchanda and Narang (2014), themicrobes are ubiquitous in nature and hence the risk of microbial contamination is ever-present.It has to be mentioned in this context that the exposure to microorganisms or their byproducts ismostly facilitated by inhalation and contact with the mucous membrane. In everyday life, therecan be a variety of transmission points which can lead to microbial contamination based on thedifferent settings. For instance, there can be various different sources of contamination such asutility based contamination, equipment based contamination, facility based contamination,material based contamination and personnel based contamination. On a more elaborative note, itcan be stated that germs can be spread via a number of different resources such as contaminatedair causing airborne contamination, outer skin of the personnel for contact based contamination,and manufacturing processes which can lead to a variety of different contaminations. Accordingto theVerani, Bigazzi and Carducci (2014), it has to be mentioned that even a sneeze canproduce close to 1 million bacteria. With respect to the mechanism of contamination of thedifferent microbes, there are two basic types of contamination. The first type of contamination isthe direct contamination, which is facilitated by microbial components and poorly maintainedHVAC systems. The second type of contamination is the cross contamination which is the typeof contamination that constitutes the majority of microbial spread in the household setting.
3RESEARCH METHODS FOR BIOSCIENCEAnother very important aspect of microbial contamination in the day to day life isthrough the washrooms. According to theJeon, Chun and Kim (2013), the infection preventionbehaviors instilled in the different populations is limited to covering mouths when coughing orsneezing, hand hygiene and wiping down the germ surfaces such as desks, however the personalhygiene habits have not been able to extend to the washroom even now. The washroom or thetoilet seat most evidently can serve as a reservoir of germs or microbes which can cause a varietyof different communicable diseases. On a more elaborative note, there is a mircobiom residing inthe toilet seat and every time a particular individual is flushing the toilet with the lid open thebacteria sprays into the air contaminating it significantly. As per the article by theGov.uk(2018), one of the most dangerous infectious pathogen found in the toilet seat had beenClostridium difficile, which is a notorious bacteria responsible for causing watery diarrhea, ever,nausea, andabdominal pain, the researchers are of the opinion that this particular pathogen isable to be spewed up up to 10 inches above the toilet seats and as a result can contaminate theair, the other nearby surfaces and the skin of the occupant using the toilet seat. The washroomgerms are not only contaminating the skin of the occupant it can also transfer to everything theperson touches including washroom supplies, materials, and even the doors and doorknobs (Palet al. 2013).Another very common of the present day tech savvy generation is to take their smartdevices such as the smart phones, ipads, tablets to the washroom, and hence the contaminatedair, skin and surfaces of the washroom can then contaminate the touch screen device. Thesesmartphones or tablets are carried by the user for the entire day and if the touch-screen devicesare not cleaned properly or sterilized it can lead to various infectious diseases by contaminatingeverything it comes in contact with. According to the statistical data revealed that the
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