Risk Management and Project Feasibility

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Aquaporins as a novel role toenhance salinity tolerance inwheat
Table of ContentsSummary...............................................................................................................................................3Literature review....................................................................................................................................4Aims and Objectives of research...........................................................................................................6Research Plan........................................................................................................................................7Outputs of the projects.........................................................................................................................10Outcomes from this project.................................................................................................................11Project feasibility and risk management:.............................................................................................11References...........................................................................................................................................122
Aquaporins as a novel role to enhance salinity tolerance in wheatSummarySlainity tolerence level impacts over the growth of crop and times it leads to the spoilof crop. Aquaporin is considered as integral membrane of protien that works as channel inorder to transfer water. It can be said that aquaporin have ability to reduce affect of salt whichis affecting growth of the crop. In this report, it has been analysed that their are mainly threelimitation of salt which affects over growth of aggriculture that isOsmotic Tolerance, Na+exclusion and Na+ Tissue tolerance. The report is mainly based on two objectives which areformulated in order to identify actual output of whole research.Literature reviewSalinity as an issue in agriculture:It has been estimated that nearly 950 million hectares on earth were affected due tosalinity and over half of the arable irrigated land in the world suffers from secondary-induced salinity. Due to globalization and rapid climatic changes the annual rainfall isexpected to decrease in subtropical regions. The shortage of rainfall and water must bereplaced with brackish and saltwater for better agriculture production. By the time 2050global food production need to be increased to 50% to reach the demands of a growingpopulation(Shabala 2013). In Australia, by the year 2020, an expectation of 25% of landmay be out of production due to Secondary salinization. The threats imposed by salinitywere causing billions of dollars lost to the agriculture industry. In the past few years atMurray-Darling Basin, an estimated range of 260 million dollars of the economy gotaffected.Major Constraints impose by salinity:Osmotic and ionic stresses were the majorconsequences of salinity. The extra osmotic gradient generates by excess levels of Na+that drives water out of the cell. In order to undergo normal cellular metabolism water3
from vacuole moves to the cytosol and compensates the water depletion. As a result, thecell turgor get reduces and elongation of roots takes place.The second limitation due to salt stress was Na+ toxicity. In general, the physiochemicalproperty of Na+ and K+ were similar in nature, due to their similarity, Na+ compensatewith K+ ions in the key metabolic processes like ribosome functions, protein synthesisand enzymatic reactions(Marschner 1995).The third important constraint induced by salinity is the K+ deficiency and othernutritional disorders (Shabala 2013).Na+ competes with K+ at specific sites of a plasmamembrane. When Na+ crosses along the plasma membrane, a momentous membranedepolarization is observed and such kind of depolarization disturbs the K+ uptake. TheFinal result will be an impaired metabolism in the cell.The other constraint imposed by Salinity is reducing of Hydraulic conductance in rootsand minimize the absorption of H2O2 (Aroca et al. 2005; Ye & Steudle 2006).Few adaptive mechanisms of the plant under Salinity: Salinity Tolerance is acombination of three important basic mechanisms:Osmotic Tolerance:It refers to the capability of the plant to resist toxic salinitycomponents under saline conditions by maintaining both stomatal conductance andnormal shoot growth.Na+ exclusion:It refersto the plant ability to minimize the amount of Na+ entry intoshoots was the major toxicity occurs. This is achieved by controlling Na+ entry into rootsfrom the soil and developing of Na+ efflux mechanism that excludes sodium ions back tothe external environment. HKT family genes were more highlighted in the breedingworld, whereas these genes were responsible for root adaptive mechanism seen inArabidopsis, barley, eucalyptus, wheat etc.HKT family genes were usually divided intotwo subclasses based on their transport selectivity. Transporters of one family areselective to Na+ ions rather than K+, whereas the other family is selective to both Na+and K+ absorption. K+ selectivity is strictly due to the deposition of glycine in specificpositions of HKT subfamilies. (Shabala 2017)In recent times an important concept ofwater and solute transporters came into existence and role played by Aquaporins in thisrelation. So far More than 30 MIPs were identified in plants like Rice, Arabidopsis andmaize (Maurel 2007) There was no clear information about the mechanism behind the4
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