(PDF) Impact of Fiber Optic Technology

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Sample exams questions1SAMPLE EXAMS QUESTIONSBy NameCourseInstructorInstitutionLocationDate
Sample exams questions2Question 1 a.a).Advantages of fiber-optics over copper in communication media.1.Greater bandwidthFiber –optics have relatively more bandwidths as compared to copper. This is because copperwires were originally designed for a voice transmission hence lower bandwidth. Fiber opticwires offer higher bandwidth for conveying higher data than copper wires of the equal sizes.2.Reduced Security Risk:The progression of the fiber optic communiqué sale is essentially compelled by aggregatealertness in the data security anxieties and employment of the substitute raw material.3.Longer Distance:For the fiber optic broadcast, optical wires are able of offering less power loss that permitssignals to be conveyed to a more distance than for the copper wires.4.Noise:Practically transmission wires utilization, it’s unavoidable to achieve environments parameterssuch as heating, ventilating, power substations among other industrialized sources of noise.Nevertheless, fiber has a smaller rate of bit error of 10×10-13, as an effect of fiber of veryresilient to electromagnetic disturbances of transmission of Fiber optic is hence essentiallynoise free as compared to copper.Advantages of copper over fiber-optics.
Sample exams questions35.The Cost is higher than in Copper wires:Notwithstanding the truth is that optic fiber connection costs are falling by around 60% yearly,connecting optic fiber wiring is comparatively higher than the cables for copper. This is truesince copper cable connection doesn’t require additional care like fiber cables.b)Digitalsignals are a sequences of pulsates with two states - on (illustrated by the logic ‘1’) or off(illustrated by the logic ‘0’). Digital signals convey more data per second as compared toanalogue signals and hence they keep their quality of signal better over long distances oftransmission of signal. Therefore, digital signals are better in transmission of signal as the noiseis relatively lower as compared to the analogue signal as seen in the diagram below.Fig 1: Showing the noise signal in the digital signal.c)
Sample exams questions41.It is really annoying as the mobile may indicate "bars" of network and indicate a goodconnection of network, yet it is still incapable to do some very significant tasks.2.Disappointingly, the Droid X hotspot and, to a slighter level, the 4G hotspot Epic werenot that easy to use.d)The channel connection in GSM between two mobile subscribers simplex is a full duplex sincefor this system, these parties are capable to connect with each other concurrently. A prototype ofa full-duplex device is acell phone; the individual at the two ends of a call are able to speak andcan be heard by the other individual concurrently[ CITATION kar14 \l 1033 ].Question 2aA)The average quantization error in an A-D converter is ∆V/4 since during the sampling stage, afull wave which has 2 cycles is used in the conversion. These two cycles will have 4 voltagepoint hence the error can easily be obtained through ∆V/4.b)
Sample exams questions5Minimum sample rates is 480 Hz for the A Codec for a mobile phone is required to convertspeech in the range 400Hz- 2kHz into a digital data stream.C)Frequency-shift keying permits digital data to be conveyed by variations or swings in thefrequency of a carrier signal, most normally it is an analog sine wave which is also a carrierwave. There are always 2 binary states in a signal, logic one (1) and logic zero (0), each of theseare represented by an analog wave form[ CITATION Dav13 \l 1033 ].d)SynchronousTDM operates through the muliplexor hence resulting to accurately the equalamount of time to every device connected to it. This duration of time portion is allotted even if adevice doesn’t have something to transmit. This is uneconomical since there will be several timedurations if the allocated time apertures are not being employed. WhileTime-division
Sample exams questions6multiplexing is a technique of placing several data streams in a sole signal through unravelingthe signal into several segments, every one has a very short duration of time.Advantages of SynchronousThis reduces overhead bitsAdvantages ofadaptivetime division multiplexingTDM circuitry is not very complexQuestion 3 aa)It helps in solving the problem of little frequency range (Bandwidth). This is the punishment foracquaint with transitions of frequency. For a LAN of 10 Mbps, the spectrum signal which isbetween the 5 and 20 MHz. The data word 111001 would look as the below;b)g/SymbolFrequency of Occurrence
Sample exams questions7[per 120 symbols]#34@28&22%16£12$83428 '@'22 '&'16 '%' 12 '£' 8 '$'/ \2 'b' 7 'c'Now, repeat this process until only one tree is left:34
Sample exams questions8/ \9 12 'a'13 'd'14 'e'8 'f'/ \2 'b' 7 'c'2127/ \ / \9 12 'a'13 'd' 14 'e'85 'f'/ \2 'b' 7 'c'48/ \2127/ \ / \9 12 'a'13 'd' 14 'e'85 'f'/ \
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