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Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment

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Added on  2024-01-18

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This study examines the positive and negative environmental impacts of sand excavation on the environment. Findings highlight the deepening and widening of rivers, formation of artificial rivulets, accidents caused by uncovered deep pits, erosion, and environmental degradation. Solutions include 24-hour security, penalties for illegal mining, and the development of an Environmental Management Plan.

Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment

   Added on 2024-01-18

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Cover page
ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF SAND EXCAVATION ON THE
ENVIRONMENT
BY
Osamudiamen Best ALILE
LSC1706001
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE LABORATORY TECHNOLOGY
(GEOLOGY AND MINNING TECHNIQUES)
FACULTY OF LIFE SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF BENIN
BENIN CITY
SEPTEMBER, 2023
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_1
CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by Osamudiamen Best ALILE with
Matriculation Number LSC1706001, under the supervision of Mrs. Janet Ailegbo Obayuwana
in Science Laboratory Technology (Geology and Mining Techniques) Faculty of Life
Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.
___________________ _______________________
MRS. JANET AILEGBO OBAYUWANA Date
(Project Supervisor)
_______________________ ____________________________
MISS. OSUMAH Date
(Project Coordinator)
_______________________ _____________________________
DR. E.O. OSHOMOH Date
(Head of Department)
_______________________ ____________________________
EXTERNAL EXAMINER Date
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_2
DEDICATION
I dedicate this project work Chiefly to Almighty God who has been there right from the
beginning to this very point. Special dedication also goes to my Grandmother, Late Mrs
Anna Odeghe. May your soul rest in Peace, Amen.
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and Foremost, I would like to thank God. He has given me strength and encouragement
throughout all the challenging moments of completing this project work. I am truly grateful for
His unconditional and endless love, mercy, protection, provision and grace.
While working on this project I have also received unconditional support and guidance from
many people. I want to thank them all.
I would like to convey my heartfelt gratitude to my amazing supervisor
Mrs. Janet Ailegbo Obayuwana for the support and assistance in the completion of my project
which would not have been possible without their valuable words and advice that really
motivated me.
Nobody has been more important to me in the pursuit of this project than the members of my
family who never ceased to believe in me. I want to thank my lovely and most supportive
parents; my father, Mr. Pius Alile for his love and support and for always wanting the best for
me, I really appreciate that. My mom (my very own Police Inspector) Mrs. Odogun Queen
Esivbeneta, words can’t describe how grateful I am. Thank you so much for the prayers,
constant advice , constant support. I want to Also thank the family of Mr and Mrs Odeh (my
second parents), God bless you both.
My special appreciation also goes to my Uncle, Mr Andrew Odogun, Mr Austin Odogun and
Mr Patrick Odogun. Thank you all for your support. I want to Also appreciate my Brother,
Master Imade Rejoice Alile (U seff dey try). May God bless everyone that has contributed in
making my academic journey a success, Amen.
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_4
ABSTRACT
This study was carried out on the effect of sand excavation on the environment The study
examined positive and negative environmental impacts of the continuous removal of river
sand, pit sand and gravel from sampled rivers and open areas surrounding Abraka-Eku areas.
Quantitative and qualitative research designs that is questionnaire survey, oral interviews, field
observation and measurements were used to collect data from selected sampled points. Ethiope
and Eku rivers were selected because they are nearer to Abraka-Eku and most river sand is
mined from these rivers. More points were sampled from open areas in Urhuoka, Ajalomi and
Abraka farms where pit sand and gravel are mined. Convenience and purposive sampling
methods were used to pick questionnaire survey respondents (175) from Urhuoka and Ethiope
villages where people affected lives. Findings of the study highlighted that river sand was
mined most from rivers near Abraka-Eku compared to pit sand and gravel because of its multi
uses. Mining is important for economic development, to construct durable, modern structures,
employment creation and revenue collection but removal of river sand leads to deepening and
widening of rivers. Artificial rivulets are formed as resource is extracted uncontrollably. Pit
sand and gravel are extracted from open areas creating uncovered deep pits, which caused of
accidents to children and livestock. Erosion and environmental degradation occur due to
continuous mining. Miners dispose waste on open areas and riverbeds causing land pollution.
Dust and noise pollution from tipper trucks ferrying sand and gravel are a cause of concern to
villagers as the trucks move even at night, disturbing sleep. Solutions to uncontrolled mining
include 24 hour security and regular raids on illegal miners. The author recommends that
heavy penalties should be imposed to curb illegal mining. High level decision making forum
involving all stakeholders is necessary to discuss problems of illegal mining and how to limit
negative impacts. Department of Mines need to develop an Environmental Management Plan
and a close monitoring program nationwide.
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover page....................................................................................................................................i
CERTIFICATION.......................................................................................................................ii
DEDICATION............................................................................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..........................................................................................................iv
ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................................v
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................vi
CHAPTER ONE..........................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................1
1.1 Background of the study........................................................................................................1
1.2 Statement of the problem.......................................................................................................2
1.3 Objectives of the study...........................................................................................................4
1.4 Research questions.................................................................................................................4
1.5 Study area...............................................................................................................................4
1.6 Location and Size...................................................................................................................4
CHAPTER TWO.........................................................................................................................6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE...................................................................................6
2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................6
2.2 Sand excavation and gravel extraction in the world..............................................................7
2.3 Sand and gravel mining in Africa..........................................................................................9
2.4 Positive impacts of sand excavation and gravel extraction worldwide...............................10
2.5 Negative environmental impacts of sand and gravel mining worldwide.............................11
2.6 Solutions and mitigation measures to sand excavation and gravel extraction worldwide...15
CHAPTER THREE...................................................................................................................18
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................18
3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................18
3.2 Research designs..................................................................................................................18
3.3. Sample and sampling procedures........................................................................................19
3.4. Research instruments..........................................................................................................19
3.4.1Questionnaire Survey.........................................................................................................20
3.4.2 Individual interviews........................................................................................................21
3.4.3 Field observation and measurements................................................................................21
3.4.4 Literature Review and Document analysis.......................................................................22
3.5. Reliability and validity........................................................................................................22
3.5.1 Reliability..........................................................................................................................22
3.5.2 Validity.............................................................................................................................22
3.5.2.1 Internal validity..............................................................................................................22
3.5.2.2 External Validity............................................................................................................23
3.6. Data presentation and analysis tools...................................................................................23
CHAPTER FOUR......................................................................................................................25
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION..................................................25
4.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................25
4.2 Demographic data of respondents........................................................................................25
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_6
4.2.1 Distribution of respondents by gender..............................................................................25
4.2.2. Distribution of respondents by age..................................................................................26
4.2.4: Distribution of respondents by distance of homestead from mining area.......................27
4.2.5: Distribution of respondents’ homes by distance from gravel roads used by trucks........27
Visits to sand and gravel extraction sites...................................................................................28
4.2.6............................................................................................................................................28
4.2.7: Activities of respondents at and around mining areas.....................................................29
4.2.8: Approximate number of trucks transporting sand and gravel passing through the villages
daily...........................................................................................................................................30
4.3 Questionnaire respondents’ general views on sand excavation and gravel extraction........30
4.3.1 Advantages (positive impacts) of sand excavation and gravel extraction........................31
4.3.1.1Benefits to residents........................................................................................................31
4.3.1.1 Benefits to the community.............................................................................................31
4.4 Discussion............................................................................................................................32
4.4.1 Disadvantages (negative impacts) of sand excavation and gravel extraction...................32
4.4.2 Respondents’ views on the activity...................................................................................32
4.4.4 Negative impacts of mining observed by respondents.....................................................34
4.4.6 Solutions and rehabilitation to sand and gravel mined areas............................................36
4.4..6.1 Solutions at community level.......................................................................................36
4.4.6.2 Solutions at District level..............................................................................................37
4.4.6.3 Solutions at national level..............................................................................................38
4.7: Environmental impacts of sand excavation and gravel extraction......................................55
4.7.1: Positive impacts of sand excavation and gravel extraction.............................................55
4.7.2: Negative impacts of sand excavation and gravel extraction............................................58
CHAPTER FIVE.......................................................................................................................66
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................................................66
5.1 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................66
5.2 Recommendations................................................................................................................66
5.2.1 Recommendations to decision makers..............................................................................66
5.2.3 Recommendations to miners.............................................................................................67
REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................68
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_7
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Soil is an important resource covering the land surface. Mining is the process of getting
minerals and soil components for various uses. Man depends on soil for agriculture,
construction and even as a habitat for various organisms (Mwangi, 2007). People benefit
from soil particularly sand and gravel but interfere and disturb the resource through excessive
exploitation to fulfill their needs. There is worldwide concern about the environment which
prompted the researcher to carry out this study on the environment. It seems there is
excessive mining of soil components for construction in both rural and urban development.
Gravel is mixed with river sand in filling and compacting foundations, river sand is a
component of concrete in making slab while pit sand is required for plastering buildings.
River sand is used in most mixtures because it is a strong resource which strengthens even pit
sand in plastering and makes durable bricks (Morwaeng, 2013).
Sand is a valuable resource and main input in the construction industry in many parts of the
world (Eiskine and Green, 2000, Gob, et al, 2005). Mining excavation involves the removal
of sand from their natural configuration. Sand excavation occurs both on small and large-
scale in major parts of Nigeria. It has been observed that with an estimated 16 million
housing deficit (Ezekiel 2010; lsah, 2011) and infrastructural development in Nigeria, there
will continue to be the great demand for sand and other construction materials (Omolu and
Ajakaiye, 1988). Sand excavation is a practice that is used to extract sand, mainly through an
open pit. Sand is also mined from beaches, inland dunes and dredged from ocean beds and
river beds.
Sand is often used in manufacturing as an abrasive, for example, and it is used to make
concrete. It is also used in cold regions to put on the roads by municipal trucks to help during
heavy rainfall and extreme weather conditions, usually mixed with salt or another mixture to
lower the freezing temperature of the road surface (have the precipitations freeze at a lower
temperature). Sand dredged from the mouths of rivers can also be used to replace eroded
coastline (Kadi, et al., 2012).
The increasing rate of urbanization across the globe has brought with it several challenges
ranging from physical, economic, social, to environmental among other issues (Cohen, 2006;
1
Assessment of the Effect of Sand Excavation on the Environment_8

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