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and Design
Ned Mohan is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Minnesota,
whereheholdstheOscarA. Schott Chair in Power Electronics. He has worked on several power
electronics projects sponsored by the industry and the electric power utilities, including the Electric
Power Research Institute. He has numerous publications and patents in this field.
Tore M. Undeland is a Professor in Power Electronics inthe Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. He is also Scientific
Advisor to the Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute of ElectricitySupply. He has been a visiting
scientific worker in the Power Electronics ConverterDepartment of ASEA in Vaasteras, Sweden,
and at Siemens in Trondheim, Norway, anda visiting professor in the Department of Electrical
Engineering at the University ofMinnesota. He has worked on many industrial research and
development projects in thepower electronics field and has numerous publications.
William P. Robbins is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the
University of Minnesota. Prior to joining the University of Minnesota, he was a research engineer at the
Boeing Company. He has taught numerous courses in electronics andsemiconductor device
fabrication. His research interests are in ultrasonics, pest insectdetection via ultrasonics, and
micromechanical devices, and he has numerous publications in this field.
POWER ELECTRONICS Converters, Applications,
NED MOHANDepartment of Electrical Engineering
University of MinnesotaMinneapolis, Minnesota
TORE M. UNDELANDFaculty of Electrical Engineering and
Computer ScienceNorwegian Institute of TechnologyTrondheim, Norway
WILLIAM P. ROBBINSDepartment of Electrical
EngineeringUniversity ofMinnesotaMinneapolis, Minnesota
JOHN WILEY &SONS, INC.New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto
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This book was typeset in Times Roman by The Clarinda Company, and
printed and bound by Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was
printed by NEBC.
Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written,
it is a policy ofJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc. to have books of enduring
value published in the United Statesprinted on acid-free paper, and we exert
ourbest efforts to that end.
PSpice is a registered trademark of MicroSim
Corporation.MATLAB is a registered trademark of The
Math Works, Inc.
Copyright © 1989, 1995 by John Wiley &
Sons, Inc.All rights reserved. Published
simultaneously in Canada.
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted
by Sections 107and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the
permission of the copyright owneris unlawful. Requests for permission or
further information should be addressed to thePermissions Department,
John Wiley&Sons, Inc.
Library of Congress Cataloging in
Publication Data:Mohan, Ned.
Power electronics : converters, applications, and design/
NedMohan, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins.-2nd ed.
p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and
ISBN 0-471-58408-8 (cloth)1. Power electronics. 2. Electric
current converters. 3. Power semiconductors. 1. Undeland,
Tore M. II. Robbins, William P.III. Title.TK7881.15.M64 1995
Printed in the United States of
10 9 8 765 43 2 1
To Our Families ...Mary, Michael, and Tara
Mona, Hilde, and Arne
Joanne and Jon
The first edition of this book was published in 1989. The basic intent of this editionremains the
applications and design in the power range of 500 kW or less, where a huge market
existsand where the demand for power electronics engineers is likely to be.Based on the
comments collected over a five-year period, we have made a number of substantial
changes to the text. The key features are as follows:
• An introductory chapter has been added to provide a review of basic electrical and
magnetic circuit concepts, making it easier to use this book in introductory power
electronics courses.A chapter on computer simulation has been added that describes
the role of com puter simulations in power electronics. Examples and problems based
on PSpice®and MATLAB® are included. However, we have organized the material in such a
way that any other simulation package can be used instead or the simulations can
be skipped altogether.
• Unlike the first edition, the diode rectifiers and the phase-controlled thyristor con
verters are covered in a complete and easy-to-follow manner. These two chaptersnow contain
56 problems.
• Anew chapter on the design of inductors and transformers has been added that
describes easy-to-understand concepts for step-by-step design procedures. This
material will be extremely useful in introducing the design of magnetics into the
• A new chapter on heat sinks has been added.
This book is divided into seven parts. Part 1 presents an introduction to the field of power
electronics, an overview of power semiconductor switches, a review of pertinent electric
and magnetic circuit concepts, and a generic discussion of the role of computer simula
tions in power electronics.
Part 2 discusses the generic converter topologies that are used in most applications.The
actual semiconductor devices (transistors, diodes, and so on) are assumed to be ideal,
thus allowing us to focus on the converter topologies and their applications.
Part 3 discusses switch-mode dc and uninterruptible power supplies. Power supplies
represent one of the major applications of power electronics.
Part 4 considers motor drives, which constitute another major applications
Part 5 includes several industrial and commercial applications in one chapter. Another
chapter describes various high-power electric utility applications. The last chapter in this
part of the book examines the harmonics and electromagnetic interference concerns and
remedies for interfacing power electronic systems with the electric utilities.
Part6discussesthepowersemiconductor devices used in power electronic converters
including diodes, bipolar junction thyristors, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field effect
transistors,thyristors, gate turn-off thyristors, insulated gate bipolar transistors, and
MOS-controlled thyristors.
Part 7 discusses the practical aspects of power electronic converter design
includingsnubbercircuits,drivecircuits,circuitlayout,andheat sinks. An extensive new
As a companion to this book, a large number of computer simulations are availabledirectly from
Minnesota Power Electronics Research andEducation, P.O. Box 14503,Minneapolis, MN
55414(Phone/Fax:612-646-1447)toaidinteachingandinthedesignof power electronic
systems. The simulation package comes complete with a diskette with76 simulations of
power electronic converters and systems using the classroom (evaluation) versionof
PSpiceforIBM-PC-compatiblecomputers,a261-pagedetailedmanualthat describes each
simulation and a number of associated exercises for home assignments and self-learning,
a 5-page instruction set to illustrate PSpice usage using these simulations as examples, and
two high-density diskettes containing a copy of the classroom (evaluation) version of PSpice. This
package (for a cost of $395 plus a postage of $4within North America and $25 outside) comes
with a site license, which allows it to becopied for use at a single site within a company or at
an educational institution in regularcourses given to students for academic credits.
As with the first edition of this book, a solutions manual with completely
worked-outsolutions to all the problems is available from the publisher,
We wish to thank all the instructors who have allowed us this opportunity to write
the second edition of our book by adopting its first edition. Their comments have
been mostuseful. We are grateful to Professors Peter Lauritzen of the University of Washington,
Thomas Habetler of the Georgia Institute of Technology, Daniel Chen of the VirginiaInstitute of
Technology, Alexander Emanuel of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, F. P.Dawson of the
University of Toronto, and Marian Kazimierczuk of the Wright State University for their helpful
suggestions in the second edition manuscript. We express our sincere appreciation to the Wiley
Amanatidis, for keeping us on schedule and for manyspirited discussions,
Ned Mohan
Tore M. Undeland William P. Robbins
Chapter 1 Power Electronic Systems1-1 Introduction 3 1-2 Power
Electronics versus Linear Electronics 41-3 Scope and Applications71-4
Classification of Power Processors and Converters1-5 About the Text
121-6 Interdisciplinary Nature of Power Electronics 131-7Convention of
Symbols Used14
Problems 14References15
Chapter2 Overview of Power Semiconductor Switches2-1Introduction - 162-2
Diodes 162-3 Thyristors 182-4 Desired Characteristics in Controllable Switches 20
2-5 Bipolar Junction Transistors and Monolithic Darlingtons 24 2-6
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors252-7Gate-Turn-Off
Thyristors 262-8 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors272-9 MOS-Controlled
Thyristors292-10 Comparison of Controllable Switches 292-11 Drive and
Snubber Circuits 302-12Justification for Using Idealized Device
Characteristics 31
Summary 32Problems 32 References
Chapter 3 Review of Basic Electrical and Magnetic Circuit Concepts3-1 Introduction - 33
3-2 Electric Circuits 333-3 Magnetic Circuits 46
Summary57Problems58References 60
Chapter 4 Computer Simulation of Power Electronic Converters
and Systems4-1 Introduction 614-2 Challenges in
Computer Simulation 624-3 Simulation Process62 4-4 Mechanics of
Simulation 644-5 Solution Techniques for Time-Domain Analysis 654-6 Widely
Used, Circuit-Oriented Simulators 694-7 Equation Solvers72
Summary74Problems 74References75
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