Self Healing Concrete Report

Added on - 22 Jul 2020

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Dissertation - “Self-HealingConcrete”
ABSTRACTThe research work proposed herewith aims at evaluating future of self-healing concrete as aconstruction material & its impact on reducing long-term maintenance cost. In order to achieveoverall aim & conduct research with high efficiency, a sequential procedure is adopted. First ofall, the importance of using self-healing concrete in construction industry is evaluated. Also,different approaches and mechanism of using self-healing concrete as per each of the approach isanalysed in detail. The research also throws light on cost-benefit analysis of using self-healingconcrete as a construction material into practice.All relevant secondary information is accumulated for conducting an in-depth research. It isthrough critical evaluation of published literatures that a valid outcome is generated. Distinct setsof keywords such as: biological self-healing concrete, vascular self-healing concrete, chemicalself-healing concrete, etc. are used to search the relevant information. The informationaccumulated is aggregated together and evaluated deeply so as to arrive at valid conclusion.Also, a case analysis for construction projects in which self-healing concrete is used is presented.It can be analysed thatSHC is a cost-effective and sustainable element that is more beneficialthan the normal concrete. It has been analysed that SHC being a less permeable material restrictsthe entry of foreign substances that increase the strength and thus, a durability of the structure.SHC uses biological constituents for healing and thus, it does not affect the environment byemitting CO2.The use of SHC reinforcement should be prevented in health care homes andschool’s due to the hazards that are caused by bacteria. It is observed that the production cost ofSHC was obtained comparatively higher which impacts upon its productivity.It is seen that the initial outlay for using self-healing concrete in construction project iscomparatively higher. However, in long run, lower amount of maintenance cost is required.Further, it is found that in present scenario, there is very limited application of the self-healingconcrete. However, in future, there will be more areas where development can be made.Researchers are trying to find the effectiveness of the process under different environmentalconditions and area.i
ACKNOLODGEMWENTI am so thankful to all those persons who have given me provision, guidance as well asmuch needed motivation so as to complete the current research study. Firstly, I owe my thanks toguide who gave me chance to undertake this dissertation. Furthermore, I am thankful to my teammembers, family and friends who helped me in all possible accords. This led to successfulcompletion of dissertation and achievement of relevant results.ii
contentsChapter 1 - Introduction...................................................................................................................11.1 Background of the research..............................................................................................11.2 Rationale...........................................................................................................................51.3 Significance......................................................................................................................61.4 Aim and Objectives..........................................................................................................71.5 Research Questions..........................................................................................................81.6 Methods, tools and techniques.........................................................................................8Chapter 2: Self-Healing Concrete..................................................................................................102.1 Cracks in concrete..........................................................................................................102.2 The healing process........................................................................................................132.3 Advantages and disadvantages of self- healing methods...............................................18Chapter 3-Self-Healing concrete- Mechanism and advances........................................................203.1 Role of self-healing concrete..........................................................................................203.2 Mechanism of self-healing concrete...............................................................................203.3 Advancements associated with self-healing concrete....................................................223.4 Factors affecting efficiency of microbially induced carbonate precipitation.................25Chapter 4- Field application of self healing concrete....................................................................274.1 Cruzsacha Canal in Ecuador...........................................................................................274.2 Lifeguard station on a lake in Netherlands.....................................................................284.3 Summary.........................................................................................................................29Chapter 5- Effectiveness of the self-healing process.....................................................................305.1 Self-healing Attributes....................................................................................................305.2 Robustness Criteria.........................................................................................................305.3 Robustness in its approaches..........................................................................................31Chapter 6-Cost-Benefit Analysis and sustainability of self-healing concrete...............................33Chapter 7: Data Analysis...............................................................................................................367.1 Introduction....................................................................................................................367.2 Thematic analysis...........................................................................................................36Chapter – 8 Conclusion And Recommendation.............................................................................478.1 Conclusion......................................................................................................................47iii
8.1.1 Achievement of Aims........................................................................................478.2 Recommendations..........................................................................................................49Chapter 9: References....................................................................................................................50Books and Journals...............................................................................................................50iv
Table of FiguresFigure 1: Cracks or gaps that occur in concretes.............................................................................2Figure 2: Mechanism of Biological-based self-healing concrete....................................................3Figure 3: Types of Cracks in Concrete..........................................................................................11Figure 4: Types of Cracks in Concrete..........................................................................................11Figure 5: Self-healing approaches.................................................................................................14Figure 6: Mechanism of biological self-healing concrete.............................................................16Figure 7: Illustration showing cracks fill through self-healing concrete.......................................16Figure 8: Self-healing features of concrete with mineral admixtures............................................17Figure 9: Bacterial fixing of cracks in concrete.............................................................................17Figure 10: Mechanism of healing process.....................................................................................21Figure 11: Self-healing mechanism (PVA engineered cementitious composite)..........................23Figure 12: Self-healing process.....................................................................................................24Figure 13: Bacillus sphaericus under microscope.........................................................................25Figure 14: Lifeguard station on a lake in Netherlands..................................................................28Figure 15: Biocement applied........................................................................................................29Figure 16: Comparison of cost......................................................................................................33Figure 17: Crack analysis..............................................................................................................37Figure 18: Use of Non-pathogenic bacteria in self-concrete.........................................................38Figure 19: Self-healing admixture.................................................................................................41Figure 20: Permeability of cracked specimens..............................................................................44v
List of TableTable 1: Keyword search.................................................................................................................9List of EquationsEquation 1: Chemical equation of Calcium lactate.........................................................................2Equation 2: Chemical Equation for Exothermic............................................................................21vi
List of Chemical SymbolsCO2Carbon DioxideCaCalciumH2OWaterCaCo3Calcium CarbonatepHpotential of hydrogenList of AbbreviationsGDPGross Domestic ProductPVAPoly Vinyl AlcoholECCEngineering Cementitious CompositesSAPSuper-absorbent polymersMICPMicrobially induced carbonate precipitationvii
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