Unit – 1 Electronic Components

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Shree P M Patel College of Electronics and Communication, Anand
S.Y.B.Sc. Semester –III
US03CELE21 Electronics Devices – I
Unit – 1 Electronic Components
Introduction
An electronic component may appear quite complicated and may be
capable of performing fantastic function. All electronic circuits, however
complicated contain a few basic components.
Generally speaking, there are basic five electronic components
which are used in mostly all electronic circuits. This component are of the
orderoftwodifferenttypeseitheractivecomponentorpassive
components.
Active components are the elements or devices which are capable of
providing or delivers energy to the circuit.
Passive components are the devices which do not require any
external source for the operation and are capable of storing energy in the
form of voltage or current in the circuit.
Block diagram of electric components
Difference between active and passive components
Resistor
Resistors are components used to resist the flow of electric current
andhave a stated value of Resistance. Many types of resistors are used
havingdifferentusesandconstruction.Themostcommontypes
have a fixed value of resistance so are often called fixed resistors. They
are shown on circuit schematic diagrams

The unit of resistor is ohm (ᾨ). The resistor are made in many forms
either fixed or variable resistor.
The two main characteristics of a resistor are its resistance, R, in
ohms and its power rating, P, in Watts. The resistance, R, provides the
required reduction in current or the desired drop in voltage.
The wattage rating indicates the amount of power the resistor can safely
dissipate as heat. The wattage rating is always more than the actual amount
of power dissipated by the resistor, as a safety factor.
Various types of fixed resistors are used in circuits, they are the most
numerous of all electronic components and their most common job is to
reduce voltages and currents around a circuit so that ‘active components’,
transistors and integrated circuits for example, that carry out tasks such as
producing or amplifying signals within the circuit are supplied with the
correct voltages and currents to work properly.
Resistors are also used in conjunction with other components such
as inductors and capacitors to process signals in many ways. Because
resistors are ‘passive components’ they cannot amplify or increase voltages
currents or signals, they can only reduce them. Nevertheless, they are a
most essential part of any electronic circuit.
There are two basic types of resistors.
1. Linear Resistors
2. Non Linear Resistors
Linear Resistors:
Those resistors, which values change with the applied voltage and
temperature, are called linear resistors. In other words, a resistor, which
current value is directly proportional to the applied voltage is known as
linear resistors.
Generally, there are two types of resistors which have linear properties.
1. Fixed Resistors
2. Variable Resistors

Fixed Resistors:
As the name tells everything, fixed resistor is a resistor which has a
specific value and we can’t change the value of fixed resistors.
Types of Fixed resistors.
1. Carbon Composition Resistors
2. Wire Wound Resistors
3. Thin Film Resistors
4. Thick Film Resistors
1.Carbon Composition Resistors:
A typical fixed resistor is made from the mixture of granulated or
powdered carbon or graphite, insulation filler, or a resin binder. The ratio
of the insulation material determines the actual resistance of the resistor.
The insulating powder (binder) made in the shape of rods and there are two
metal caps on the both ends of the rod.

There are two conductor wires on the both ends of the resistor for
easy connectivity in the circuit via soldering. A plastic coat covers the rods
with different color codes (printed) which denote the resistance value.
They are available in 1 ohm to 25 mega ohms and in power rating from ¼
watt to up to 5 Watts.
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