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Infrastructure is fundamental to economic development Assignment

Added on - 30 Jun 2021

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SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURE STANDARDSAND COMMERCIAL FACILITIESBY JASNEET SINGH NARUInfrastructure:Infrastructure is fundamental to economic development and plays a vital role in shapingthe quality of life of individuals and societies.Development in infrastructure brings out a strong positive relationship between level of GDPand infrastructure stock per capita, one percent increase in stock of infrastructure is associatedwith one percent increase in GDP across all countries(World Bank Development report 1994)Definition of Infrastructure:According to thePlanning Commission Government of IndiaInfrastructure isrecognized as a crucial input for economic development, but there is no clear definition ofinfrastructure has been given according to the current usage in India.Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs, defined ―Infrastructure‖ as anessential input to the economic system.Classification of Infrastructure:According to theurban development plan formulation and implementation (UDPFI)Guidelines (1996)infrastructure is the basic requirement of urban life and its adequacyand accessibility are two important ingredients and key contributors in the up gradationand enrichment of quality of urban life which is the primary objective of any planneddevelopment effort.UDPFI Guidelines has classified infrastructure as:Physical infrastructure:includes a) Water supply, b) Sewerage, c) Drainage d)electricity and e) solid waste.Social infrastructure:includes a) Education facilities b) Healthcare facilities c)Socio Cultural facilities d) Recreational facilities e) Sports Facilities f)communication facilities g) Distribution Services health h) Police Safety.Commercial facilities covering:a) CBD, b) Sub-city Business District, c)District CentreRecreational Facilities:covering: a) Parks and Open Spaces, b) Sports Centreand Play Grounds c) Botanical and Zoological Parks d) Water Bodies/OtherNatural Features, and e) Places of Tourist InterestTraffic and TransportationDEFINITION OF SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTUREWorld Bank report (2004)defined Social infrastructure as the infrastructure that promotes thehealth, education and cultural standards of the population, activities that have both direct and indirectimpact on the welfare and included schools, libraries, universities, clinics, hospitals, courts, museums,theatres, playgrounds, parks, fountains and statues in it.SocialInfrastructure AssetsHealth:Medical centers and facilities, Drinking Water and wastewater treatment sanitationEducation:Schools (primary and secondary), colleges training facilities Tertiary facilities,Residential student accommodationHousing:Residential, State or Council and Defense force housingRecreation: Community and sports facilities, Parks and rides, markets and cinema hall,public libraryCivic and Utilities:Bus stations, street lights
Law and order:Prisons, Court houses, police check postsThey have considered social infrastructure in relation to other infrastructure in the following manner:Social and cultural infrastructure:Health and mental health care, Education and learning,Social services and support, Arts and culture, Recreation – parks, open space, Civic services,local government, Spiritual – places of assembly etc.Economic infrastructure:Finance systems, Businesses, Retail and manufacturing, Trade,Transport systems and networks, Telecommunications, AgriculturePhysical infrastructure:Road, ports,Environmental:Waste water, Storm water, Irrigation, Flood control, Sewage, Solid wastedisposal, Air quality control.EDUCATIONSchooling in India has sis to historically been privately provided where in teachers, who also hadreligious or spiritual preoccupation, formally imparted education .Despite this, access to some basicschooling was available to both the rich and the poor .while access to education was perhaps notentirely egalitarian or wide spread, the poorest could obtain some initial schooling for their children inan area when state subsidies were largely absent , large masses of the population have remainedoutside the orbit of the benefits from the public education system in India.Educational deprivation has two dimensions:lack of schools and poor infrastructure andpoor quality of teachingThere has been a greater policy emphasis on the provision of more schools (quantity) than onactivities that actually take place side class rooms (quality) At the elementary level universal access toquality infrastructure and effectiveness of teaching are serious challenges (Agarwas 2001). Manyschools lack access to basic amenities. As of 2002, 1693 primary schools have no schoolbuilding (NCERT, 2002).The 73rd and 74th constitutional Amendments underlined the role to be played by local bodies both inrural and urban areas with respect to provision and governance of education promotion of cultural,education and aesthetic aspects.Norms for Education Facilities:Pre-primary to Secondary Education:Pre-primary education is usually meant for children below 6 years of age to prepare thechildren for admission to primary schools at the age of 6 years. At the next level Primaryeducation is imparted to children between 6 and 10 years of age studying in classes fromClass-I to Class-IV/V. The UDPFI guidelines have mentioned guidelines for theeducation institutions. The norms for Pre-Primary to Secondary Education shown inTable-2.1. The Secondary and Higher Secondary (HS) levels include education fromClass VI to Class X and from Class XI to XII.
Higher Education: Higher education concerns the college and technical or specializededucation system. Norms for Higher Education Facilities are shown in Table -
Health Infrastructure:Health is an important component of the social and economic development of the countryand an essential input for the development of human resources and the quality of life.The World Health Organization (WHO) (2014) defines health as ―a state of completephysical, and mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease andinfirmity.The development of medical care infrastructure depends on spatial accessibility and adequacy of thefacilities. Health Infrastructure provides a picture of the condition and availability of health services.Health infrastructure in terms of good accessibility sufficient availability and the standardized qualityof services are imperative in bringing the desired goal for healthy human resources.Classification of Health Care Facilities:The private sector in India has a dominant presence in terms of providing infrastructureservices The Department of Health and Family Welfare looks after the health matters.The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare consist of the following four Departments:Department of Health and Family WelfareDepartment of AYUSHDepartment of Health ResearchDepartment of AIDS ControlNorms and Standards for Health Infrastructure:
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