SOCIOL 1Z03 - An Introduction to Sociology
Added on - 03 May 2020
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Running head: SOCIOLOGYSociologyName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor note
1SOCIOLOGYFeminismhas been an assortment of ideologies,social as well as political movementssharing a common objective. It aims to establish, identify and attain social, personal, economic,and political equality or fairness among the genders (Nicholson, 2013). Feminism includes andencourages to seek establishment in the professional as well as educational field, like byproviding opportunities to the women, which are equivalent to that of men.The history of Third wave feminism started as a reaction to the apparent incompetency ofthe early 1960’s second wave feminism and as reaction in opposition to the movements andinitiatives formed by the second wave feminists. The third wave feminism differed from thesecond wave feminists in many ways, such as in the areas of sexuality issues; challenging theheterosexuality of the females and celebration of sexuality as a way of attaining womenempowerment. The move from the second wave feminism resulted in the extension of variousinstitutional as well as legal rights to the women (Harris, 2012).Feminism in the U.Scan be termed as an assortment of ideologies,social as well aspolitical movements sharing a common objective. It aims to establish, identify and attain social,personal, economic, and political equality or fairness among the genders in the United States ofAmerica. There was a substantial influence of Feminism on the politics of America.Thirty-eight presidents out of forty-five presidents in the United States, was self-proclaimed to be feminists. Feminism in America has been frequently divided in a chronologicalmanner intofirst, second and third wave feminism (Anglin et al., 2013). In the United States ofAmerica, Third wave feminism started in the earlier part of 1990.During the past, mostly the white women belonging to the middle-class from the West ofEurope and Northern America headed most of the movements of feminism and their theories.
2SOCIOLOGYThe concept of Liberation of Women had been used for first time in the United States around theyear of 1964. It had appeared in the printed form, for the first time in the year 1966. By the year1968, in spite of the appearance of the expression of Women’s Liberation Front in the magazinecovering, it was beginning to refer to the entire movement of the women (Evans, 2012).The practice of ‘Bra-burning’ was also related to this movement of womenempowerment, where the women were engaged in burning their bras which was assumed to be astatement or taking a stand for the establishment of the rights of women (Catterall, Maclaran &Stevens, 2013). Another probable reason for burning the bras was that the practice was oftenregarded as a symbol of independence of men at the same time. However, the predominance ofthis practice was debatable.One of the outspoken critics of the liberation movement of women has been the Afro-American intellectual and feminist, Gloria Jean Watkins who put forward an argument that themovement polished and emphasized over class structure and race. In consequence, it failed toconcentrate on the problems that caused division of women. She had pointed out the deficiencyof voices of minority in the movement of women in her book named, ‘Feminist theory frommargin to center’ in the year 1984.A post structuralist understanding of sexuality and gender revolves around the ideologyof third wave feminism. The focus of the third wave feminism has often been on micro politicsand opposing to the paradigms followed by the second wave feminists regarding the matters thatare considered to be good as well as the matters that are considered to be bad for women.The third wave feminists originated in the middle of 1980. Some of the leaders of Feminism,who came up during the second wave includes Bell hooks, Gloria Anzaldua, Cherrie Moraga,
3SOCIOLOGYMaxine Hong Kingston, Chela Sandoval, and others that included many black feminists, whosought for the settlement of a space within feminists view for the deliberation of subjective thatare related to race(Gill & Scharff, 2013).Third-wave feminists were also engaged in internal debates held between differentfeminists like Carol Gilligan, a psychologist who believed in the idea that there are significantdifferences among the genders; and there were people who believed that there were no inbuiltdifferences among the genders and contended that roles of gender were caused by socialconditioning (Herr, 2014).The use of the metaphor, waves has often been used for describing and explaining thehistory or past records of feminism that took place in the United States of America. The firstwave feminism that occurred in the U.S has generally been marked by the convention of rights ofwomen that was held in the year of 1848 at the Seneca Falls in New York.The second wave of feminism searched for equality with regard to the rights of women inthe public sphere by opening the doors to several professions that were previously dominated bymen. A few rights had been achieved with regard to equality in the access of jobs and educationas well as a right of abortion by the feminists in the middle of 1970 and earlier part of 1980. Thechief legislative goals were lacking, with reference to the amendment of equality of rights in theConstitution.A third wave of feminism has been presumed to commence in the year 1990 and itcontinues till date. From the first wave feminism to the third wave feminism, women have beensuccessful in making progress and development in the economic, political and legal field and theprocess continues even today.