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The assignment involves creating z-scores for 'profcrim#' and 'fraud#' and generating descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum) for both z-score variables. It also includes a cross-tabulation with gang membership and gender, followed by various questions and answers based on the results. The document provides step-by-step solutions to each question, including histograms, probability calculations, and explanations of the results.

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Vlanca Maldonado

STA 250

Prof. Bastone

03/08/2018

SPSS#2

For this assignment, you will be using the RANDstudy file. Be sure to follow the steps in order as

you see. After each set of steps in SPSS, there will be associated questions. Be sure to read the

labels for the variables in this assignment to determine what each variable is

measuring/questioning.

PART 1 SPSS Instructions: Generate a histogram, skew ness statistic along with the standard

error, and the Shapiro Wilk test for the following four variables: conv#, fraud#, profcrim# and

"arrest#1" Copy and paste all histograms, skewness statistics/standard errors and Shapiro Wilk

tests into this word document for full credit and answer the following questions.

Descriptives

Statistic

Std.

Error

Number of

convictions (window

period: 3 yrs)

Mean 1.88 .107

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

1.66

Upper

Bound

2.09

5% Trimmed Mean 1.59

Median 1.00

Variance 4.703

Std. Deviation 2.169

Minimum 0

Maximum 17

Range 17

Interquartile Range 1

Skewness 2.967 .121

Kurtosis 13.272 .241

Number of Frauds Mean 25.11 .238

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

24.65

Upper

Bound

25.58

5% Trimmed Mean 25.12

STA 250

Prof. Bastone

03/08/2018

SPSS#2

For this assignment, you will be using the RANDstudy file. Be sure to follow the steps in order as

you see. After each set of steps in SPSS, there will be associated questions. Be sure to read the

labels for the variables in this assignment to determine what each variable is

measuring/questioning.

PART 1 SPSS Instructions: Generate a histogram, skew ness statistic along with the standard

error, and the Shapiro Wilk test for the following four variables: conv#, fraud#, profcrim# and

"arrest#1" Copy and paste all histograms, skewness statistics/standard errors and Shapiro Wilk

tests into this word document for full credit and answer the following questions.

Descriptives

Statistic

Std.

Error

Number of

convictions (window

period: 3 yrs)

Mean 1.88 .107

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

1.66

Upper

Bound

2.09

5% Trimmed Mean 1.59

Median 1.00

Variance 4.703

Std. Deviation 2.169

Minimum 0

Maximum 17

Range 17

Interquartile Range 1

Skewness 2.967 .121

Kurtosis 13.272 .241

Number of Frauds Mean 25.11 .238

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

24.65

Upper

Bound

25.58

5% Trimmed Mean 25.12

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Median 25.07

Variance 23.092

Std. Deviation 4.805

Minimum 10

Maximum 38

Range 28

Interquartile Range 6

Skewness -.024 .121

Kurtosis -.053 .241

Number of profit

oriented crimes

Mean 25.02 .320

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

24.39

Upper

Bound

25.64

5% Trimmed Mean 24.94

Median 25.09

Variance 41.770

Std. Deviation 6.463

Minimum 4

Maximum 43

Range 40

Interquartile Range 9

Skewness .136 .121

Kurtosis .108 .241

Number of arrests

(before counseling)

Mean 2.36 .142

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

2.08

Upper

Bound

2.64

5% Trimmed Mean 1.96

Median 2.00

Variance 8.260

Std. Deviation 2.874

Minimum 0

Maximum 20

Range 20

Interquartile Range 2

Skewness 2.980 .121

Kurtosis 12.300 .241

Variance 23.092

Std. Deviation 4.805

Minimum 10

Maximum 38

Range 28

Interquartile Range 6

Skewness -.024 .121

Kurtosis -.053 .241

Number of profit

oriented crimes

Mean 25.02 .320

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

24.39

Upper

Bound

25.64

5% Trimmed Mean 24.94

Median 25.09

Variance 41.770

Std. Deviation 6.463

Minimum 4

Maximum 43

Range 40

Interquartile Range 9

Skewness .136 .121

Kurtosis .108 .241

Number of arrests

(before counseling)

Mean 2.36 .142

95% Confidence

Interval for Mean

Lower

Bound

2.08

Upper

Bound

2.64

5% Trimmed Mean 1.96

Median 2.00

Variance 8.260

Std. Deviation 2.874

Minimum 0

Maximum 20

Range 20

Interquartile Range 2

Skewness 2.980 .121

Kurtosis 12.300 .241

Tests of Normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Number of

convictions (window

period: 3 yrs)

.237 409 .000 .711 409 .000

Number of Frauds .023 409 .200* .998 409 .905

Number of profit

oriented crimes

.031 409 .200* .996 409 .306

Number of arrests

(before counseling)

.210 409 .000 .702 409 .000

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Number of convictions (window period: 3 yrs)

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.

Number of

convictions (window

period: 3 yrs)

.237 409 .000 .711 409 .000

Number of Frauds .023 409 .200* .998 409 .905

Number of profit

oriented crimes

.031 409 .200* .996 409 .306

Number of arrests

(before counseling)

.210 409 .000 .702 409 .000

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Number of convictions (window period: 3 yrs)

Number of Frauds

Number of profit-oriented crimes

Number of profit-oriented crimes

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Number of arrests (before counseling)

1. From viewing the histogram, skew ness value/std. error and the results of the

Shapiro Wilk test, describe in at least six sentences total the shape of the

distribution for arrest# AND conv#. You should have three sentences for each

variable.

Arrest# The histogram for Arrests is skewed to the right. The skewness

data shows that the data for Arrests is positively skewed (2.980). From

the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found that the data is not normally

distributed (Sig = 0.000).

Conv# The shape of the histogram is skewed to the right. The data of

conv# is positively skewed (2.967). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is

found that the data is not normally distributed (Sig = 0.000).

2. From viewing the histogram, skew ness value/ std. error and the results of the

Shapiro Wilk test, describe in at least six sentence total the shape of the

distribution for profcrim# and fraud#. You should have three sentences for

each variable.

1. From viewing the histogram, skew ness value/std. error and the results of the

Shapiro Wilk test, describe in at least six sentences total the shape of the

distribution for arrest# AND conv#. You should have three sentences for each

variable.

Arrest# The histogram for Arrests is skewed to the right. The skewness

data shows that the data for Arrests is positively skewed (2.980). From

the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found that the data is not normally

distributed (Sig = 0.000).

Conv# The shape of the histogram is skewed to the right. The data of

conv# is positively skewed (2.967). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is

found that the data is not normally distributed (Sig = 0.000).

2. From viewing the histogram, skew ness value/ std. error and the results of the

Shapiro Wilk test, describe in at least six sentence total the shape of the

distribution for profcrim# and fraud#. You should have three sentences for

each variable.

Fraud# The shape of the histogram is approximately normally

distributed. The data of Fraud# is approximately normal since it is close

to zero (-0.024). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found that the data is

normally distributed (Sig = 0.905).

Profcrim# The shape of the histogram is approximately normally

distributed. The data for number of profit oriented crime is

approximately normal (0.136). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found

that the data is not normally distributed (Sig = 0.306).

3. Of the four variables you just described in questions 1 and 2, which ones are

appropriate to create Z scores for? Write “NA” if not appropriate write “A”

if appropriate.

Profcrim# A

Fraud# A

Arrest# A

Conv# A

4. From viewing the X value histogram for “FRAUD#”, indicate the

highest/maximum X value- your answer is somewhat estimated. (this is not the

X value with the highest frequency). Where would you expect that X value be

in the Z distribution for ZFRAUD#? You can give a general location or

actually calculate the Z score and give an exact location. Show any

mathematical work for full credit.

Highest/Maximum X value The maximum value for FRAUD# is 27

Associated Z score (General location)

__________________________________________________________________

_____________

OR

Associated Z score (Specific location)

distributed. The data of Fraud# is approximately normal since it is close

to zero (-0.024). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found that the data is

normally distributed (Sig = 0.905).

Profcrim# The shape of the histogram is approximately normally

distributed. The data for number of profit oriented crime is

approximately normal (0.136). From the Shapiro-Wilk test it is found

that the data is not normally distributed (Sig = 0.306).

3. Of the four variables you just described in questions 1 and 2, which ones are

appropriate to create Z scores for? Write “NA” if not appropriate write “A”

if appropriate.

Profcrim# A

Fraud# A

Arrest# A

Conv# A

4. From viewing the X value histogram for “FRAUD#”, indicate the

highest/maximum X value- your answer is somewhat estimated. (this is not the

X value with the highest frequency). Where would you expect that X value be

in the Z distribution for ZFRAUD#? You can give a general location or

actually calculate the Z score and give an exact location. Show any

mathematical work for full credit.

Highest/Maximum X value The maximum value for FRAUD# is 27

Associated Z score (General location)

__________________________________________________________________

_____________

OR

Associated Z score (Specific location)

The mean for FRAUD# is 25.10 and standard deviation is 4.813

Hence the associated Z-score for highest FRAUD# = 27−25.10

4.813 =0.39

5. From viewing the X value histogram for profcrim#, report the

lowest/minimum X value- this is somewhat estimated (again, this is not the

value with the lowest frequency). Where would you expect that to be in the Z

distribution for Zprofcrim#? Either give a general location or actually

calculate the Z score and report an exact location. Show any math work for full

credit.

Lowest X value The minimum value for profcrim is 4

Associated Z score (General

location___________________________________________________________

OR

Associated Z score (Specific location)______________________Show work.

The mean for profcrim is 25.00 and standard deviation is 6.467

Hence the associated Z-score for highest profcrim = 4−25.00

6.467 =−3.65

6. From viewing the X value histogram for fraud#, report the average. Where

would that value be as a Z score in Zfraud#?

Average 25.11

Z score location =0.00

Hence the associated Z-score for highest FRAUD# = 27−25.10

4.813 =0.39

5. From viewing the X value histogram for profcrim#, report the

lowest/minimum X value- this is somewhat estimated (again, this is not the

value with the lowest frequency). Where would you expect that to be in the Z

distribution for Zprofcrim#? Either give a general location or actually

calculate the Z score and report an exact location. Show any math work for full

credit.

Lowest X value The minimum value for profcrim is 4

Associated Z score (General

location___________________________________________________________

OR

Associated Z score (Specific location)______________________Show work.

The mean for profcrim is 25.00 and standard deviation is 6.467

Hence the associated Z-score for highest profcrim = 4−25.00

6.467 =−3.65

6. From viewing the X value histogram for fraud#, report the average. Where

would that value be as a Z score in Zfraud#?

Average 25.11

Z score location =0.00

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Part 2 SPSS Instructions: Create Z scores for "profcrim#" & "fraud#" Then,

after the Z score variables are created, create a set of descriptive statistics for

both Z score variables (Zprofcrim# & Zfraud#), both Zscore variables should

have the- mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum value. You also

need create a set of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum

and maximum value) for the associated X value variables: profcrim# and

fraud#. Copy and paste the four sets of descriptive statistics below for full

credit.

7. Why do the X value variables, “profcrim#” & “fraud#" have a different mean

and standard deviation than their associated Zscore variables, “Zprofcrim#”

& “Zfraud#”? Answer should be at least 3-4 sentences.

The mean and standard deviation of the variables of profcrim# and fraud# are calculated taking

into consideration all the values. Whereas, the z-value is based on the location of the x-value

corresponding to the mean and standard deviation. Hence, all x-values which are below the mean

of the concerned variable would be negative while all above the mean would be positive.

8. Create a histogram for Zfraud#, copy and paste it below and plot the X values

for fraud below the marked Z scores using the mean and standard deviation

from the X value variable. If you cannot get each X value below the Z score

directly, you can just create an organized list anywhere below the chart.

after the Z score variables are created, create a set of descriptive statistics for

both Z score variables (Zprofcrim# & Zfraud#), both Zscore variables should

have the- mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum value. You also

need create a set of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, minimum

and maximum value) for the associated X value variables: profcrim# and

fraud#. Copy and paste the four sets of descriptive statistics below for full

credit.

7. Why do the X value variables, “profcrim#” & “fraud#" have a different mean

and standard deviation than their associated Zscore variables, “Zprofcrim#”

& “Zfraud#”? Answer should be at least 3-4 sentences.

The mean and standard deviation of the variables of profcrim# and fraud# are calculated taking

into consideration all the values. Whereas, the z-value is based on the location of the x-value

corresponding to the mean and standard deviation. Hence, all x-values which are below the mean

of the concerned variable would be negative while all above the mean would be positive.

8. Create a histogram for Zfraud#, copy and paste it below and plot the X values

for fraud below the marked Z scores using the mean and standard deviation

from the X value variable. If you cannot get each X value below the Z score

directly, you can just create an organized list anywhere below the chart.

The x-values is given in red.

9. Create a histogram for Zprofrcim#, copy and paste it below and plot the X

values for profcrim# below the marked Z scores. Either plot the X values below

the Z scores directly or create a list.

9. Create a histogram for Zprofrcim#, copy and paste it below and plot the X

values for profcrim# below the marked Z scores. Either plot the X values below

the Z scores directly or create a list.

The x-values is given in red.

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CROSS TABULATIONS:

Using the Drug Court Data file, generate a cross tabulation with gang membership

and gender. Place “gender” in the column section and “gang” in the row section.

Do not request any percentages to be in the cross tab. Copy and paste the table below

and answer the following questions. All work must be shown for full credit. Round all

answers appropriately to two decimal place.

is defendant a gang member * defendant gender Crosstabulation

Count

defendant gender

Totalmale female

is defendant a gang member no 107 25 132

yes 72 46 118

Total 179 71 250

12- What percentage of the sample is female?

The percentage of females in the sample = 71

250 =28.4 %

13- What proportion of the sample are not gang members?

The proportion who are not gang members = 132

250 =0.53

14- What percentage of males are gang members?

The percentage of males who are gang members = 72

179 =40.22 %

15- What proportion of the females are gang members?

Using the Drug Court Data file, generate a cross tabulation with gang membership

and gender. Place “gender” in the column section and “gang” in the row section.

Do not request any percentages to be in the cross tab. Copy and paste the table below

and answer the following questions. All work must be shown for full credit. Round all

answers appropriately to two decimal place.

is defendant a gang member * defendant gender Crosstabulation

Count

defendant gender

Totalmale female

is defendant a gang member no 107 25 132

yes 72 46 118

Total 179 71 250

12- What percentage of the sample is female?

The percentage of females in the sample = 71

250 =28.4 %

13- What proportion of the sample are not gang members?

The proportion who are not gang members = 132

250 =0.53

14- What percentage of males are gang members?

The percentage of males who are gang members = 72

179 =40.22 %

15- What proportion of the females are gang members?

The proportion of female who are gang members = 46

71 =0.65

16- What percentage of non- gang members are male?

The percentage of non-gang members who are males = 107

132 =81.06 %

17- Which gender is more likely to be in a gang? Explain using probabilities.

The probability of female being in gang is 0.65 while for male is 0.40. Thus a

female is more likely to be in gang.

18- Does it appear that gender influences gang membership? Explain using

probabilities

The probability that a gang member is a male = 0.61.

The probability that a gang member is a female = 0.39

Since, the probability that a gang member is a male is higher that of female,

hence it seems that gender influences gang membership.

71 =0.65

16- What percentage of non- gang members are male?

The percentage of non-gang members who are males = 107

132 =81.06 %

17- Which gender is more likely to be in a gang? Explain using probabilities.

The probability of female being in gang is 0.65 while for male is 0.40. Thus a

female is more likely to be in gang.

18- Does it appear that gender influences gang membership? Explain using

probabilities

The probability that a gang member is a male = 0.61.

The probability that a gang member is a female = 0.39

Since, the probability that a gang member is a male is higher that of female,

hence it seems that gender influences gang membership.

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