Assignment on Sports and Exercise Science

Added on - Apr 2020

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Running head: SPORT AND EXERCISE SCIENCEResearch evidence in context of sports and exerciseName of the StudentName of the UniversityAuthor Note
Student IDCryotherapy refers to a processpaintreatment, which utilises localized freezingtemperatures to treat an irritated nerve. It is most commonly used to treat malignant and benigntissue damages and also in certain types of cancers (Bahn et al. 2012). Skin abnormalities arealso treated by this intervention.Muscle spasms also get inhibited (White and Wells 2013). Thisessay will critically evaluate four research evidences related to cryotherapy and their probablerole on sports and exercise improvement.A multiple linear regression study described the association among skin temperature,room temperature, muscle temperature, body temperature, thickness of the subcutaneousadipose tissue and time duration during application of cryotherapy and rewarming (Jutte et al.2001). The study recruited 15 healthy volunteers from a university. Data collection involvedgathering skin and intratissue, core body temperature and skin-fold measurements followed byapplication of a 500 gm ice cube bag over the thigh with thermocouples. Results revealed thatbody temperature, skin interface temperature and room temperature were weak predictors.Strength lies in the fact that time is a strong predictor and skin temperature and adiposethickness are poor indicators of the efficacy of cryotherapy, which is consistent with previousstudies (Ostrowski 2017). Limitations were related to population bias caused due to recruitmentof willing college-aged population, controlled temperature and less adipose thickness among thesample.Arandomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of two types ofexternal compression on intramuscular cooling and the surface magnitude during cryotherapy.14 volunteers with previous cryotherapy experiences were enlisted and were subjected to skinfold thickness measurements (Tomchuk et al. 2010). This was followed by application of threetreatments on three different days, which included ice-bag application to posterior lower leg withno compression, compression using an elastic wrap and Flex-i-Wrap. On recording thetemperatures it was found that elastic wrap produced greater reduction in surface temperaturePage2of7
Student IDat 15 minutes compared to no compression. Furthermore, no difference was observed in thesurface temperature measurements. Greater reduction was observed by the 2 compressionmethods at 10 minutes. However, a greater temperature reduction was observed by elasticwrap compared to Flex-i-Wrap.Inadequate standardization and quantification of compressiontreatment was the major limitation. The strength was the conclusion that elastic wraps are moreeffective in intramuscular tissue temperature reduction and this could be applied by athletetrainers to help athletes recover faster from injuries (Hawkins and Hawkins 2016).According to Knight (2000) acute administration of ice reduces local metabolism andlimits secondary hypoxic injury, and sub-acute administration relieves pain and facilitatesexercise of the injured muscles. The meta-synthesis proposed that hematoma and vasculardisruption lead disturb blood circulation and oxygen delivery in addition to creating spasm, painand neural inhibition. The immediate care techniques focused on direct application of ice packswith elastic wraps between them to insulate the skin. The study also states that crushed icepacks have a lasting effect on injury reduction than cold-gel packs. Further, a greater reductionin intramuscular and surface temperature was observed on combining compression with icepacks. The muscle strain severity determines quick rehabilitation. It further stated thatimmediate care involves beginning cryostretch within 30-40 minutes for first-degree strain on thefollowing day for a second-degree strain. A wait for 4-7 leads to adhesions, haphazard scarformation, and neuromuscular inhibition. Thus, the movement gets restricted. Moreover, thestudy helped in demonstrating that cryokinetics and cryostretch effectively restore pain-freemotion and help in reducing muscle spasm.Limitations are related to inappropriate use ofarticles some of which indicated reduction in strength as well as increase in strength related tocryotherapy. More number of studies were required to demonstrate the effects of exercises oninjuries. The strength was related to the fact that the study was useful in the context of sportsPage3of7
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