Study on Epidemiology Research

Added on - 07 Mar 2020

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Epidemiology ResearchQ1.“In a health survey in a city neighbourhood 431 people aged 65 or above were examined, 52were found to have congestive heart failure. Each person was examined once, but the examinationwas staggered over a period of two years (given the sample was relatively big n=431)”a.“What was the prevalence of congenital heart failure?”[ Mark 2]-Total number of cases/ total population-52/431= 0.12-Prevalence of congenital heart failure is 0.12b.“Is it a point or period prevalence?”[ Mark 2]-Period prevalence; in this case the proportion of the population above age 65 who arehaving congestive heart failure was being calculated.Q2. “This table presents the incidence rate IR (cumulative) and population size for two regions”“Which of the following statements are True (if Any) – explain your answer by calculation if needed”a.There were the same number of cases in both regions[mark 1](True)-The prevalence for both regions when calculated will be;-Region A = 10/10000= 0.001-Region B = 5/5000= 0.001-Hence there were same numbers of cases for both regions as shown from the sameprevalence of the disease.b.There were twice as many cases in region A then region B[mark 1]-False-The number of cases for both regions are the same since there was disparity in thepopulation size, which varies in the ration of 1:2c.The risk of incurring the disease during the year was about the same for individual in regionA as for those in region B[mark 1]-the incidence rate for the disease in the regions are that for region A; the incidence rateis ;10/1000.1-While for region B is ;2Region ARegion BPopulation size10,0005000IR of gastroenteritis10 per 1005 per 100
Epidemiology Research5/1000.05-Thus the risks for incurring the diseases in both regions were not the same. There is ahigh risk in region A than in B.d.The risk of incurring the disease during the year was twice as high for individuals in region Aas for those in region B. (True)[mark 1]-The ration of incurring the disease in region A: B is 2:1, thus there is high risk for gettingthe disease in the region A compared than those in B.Q3– “What will be the incidence rate of region A and Region B combined?[Mark 4]-Combined rate of incident for both regions will be the summative cases will be;-The number of cases which will be 15 cases for both regions divided by the number ofthe population thus;-15/15000-0.001-Meaning there is 1 case per 1,000 peopleQ4. “In an army base, where there is a complete change of personnel every 3 months and the totalbase is always 1000 (i.e., every 3 months 1000 new soldiers arrive and 1000 leave). It was found that2000 soldiers incurred syphilis every year. What is the yearly cumulative incidence of syphilis in thisbase? “[mark 2]-Cumulative incidence calculated with the proportion of subjects experiencing theoutcome of syphilis during the one year.-2000 cases/ (12 months/3 months intervalx1000)-2000/4000-½ (100%) = 50%-Yearly cumulative incidence is 50%Q5.“Now assume that in each three-monthly batch of 1000 soldier there were 250 soldiers whocontracted syphilis after exactly one month (let’s say on the payday) and another 250 who did soafter precisely two months”.a.Calculate the sum total of the soldiers’ period of exposure to risk (person-time) for use asdenominator[mark 2]-In the first three month batch of 250 soldiers 4 monthly episodes and 250 soldiers whoare getting the disease after every 2 months which will give us 12months/2 months-6 months with 4 months episodes-Sum total of period of exposure is 10 monthsb.Calculate the person-time incidence rate[mark 2]3
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