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Summary. Symbol rate determines the bandwidth needed fo

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Added on  2019-09-21

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SummarySymbol rate determines the bandwidth needed for transmission. Hence if more bits are packed inone symbol, higher bit rates can be obtained for the same bandwidth. However we have to giveup something to get what we want, as a trade off. Since all bits share the symbol energy, theenergy per bit gets reduced and eventually the BER turns out to be higher. This is evident fromthe plots. One can clearly infer from the overall comparison that the BER of BPSK is the leastcompared to 4-PAM and 8-PSK. Hence for achieving the same BER as BPSK, the energy of thesymbols needs to be increased. Bandwidth efficient modulation is not necessarily energyefficient. Finally, if one uses gray coding instead of binary coding, the effect of SER on BER,which ultimately determines error between the transmitted and the received vector, can bealleviated.
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