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Global Energy Demand - An Overview

Added on - 07 Dec 2020

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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL SINGLE STAGEINTERCONNECTED CONVERTER AND POWER FLOW CONTROLMETHOD FOR PV AND BATTERY POWERED EHV SYSTEMS1.INTRODUCTIONThe rapid change in global energy demands and the environmentalproblems caused by fossil fuels have resulted in the need of solar energy whichbecomes a potential solution and is one amongst the most popular renewable energysources. However, Photovoltaic (PV) energy has some boundaries such as high costof capitation and low conversion efficiency, but it has grasped the interest of theresearchersWanget al.,(2013).The PV system comprises a friendly environmentand it is an alternative method for production of energy by utilising the energy fromthe sun. Without any noise and emissions it can operate, even if the load is increased.The output from a solar PV cell is a DC, in which the magnitude of suchoutput current is always calculated by the PV cell area and the amount of solarirradiation exposed. The magnitude of output voltage from the individual solar cell isnormally in the range of 0.5V.These cells are generally connected in a series mannerin order to comprise modules with a realistic level of voltage. When the magnitude ofPV system and load resistance is equal, then maximum power is delivered at theoperating point. This can be achieved by an interfacing DC-DC power converterutilizing some assured techniques of MPPT.Among the various types of arrangements of photovoltaic technology, astand-alone PV-battery-powered backup system can be utilised in different types ofapplicationsChenet al.,(2013).For maintaining the system operation, the energystored can behelpful during the shading to the PV panel.In such cases, to keep thepower demand an efficient converter is required within the limit of the maximumavailability and to prevent any failure, and shut down or damage. To diminish theseproblems, a novel single stage Interconnected converter named Modified BoostBidirectional Buck-Boost Converter (MB4C) is proposed.2
Electric Vehicles (EV’s) are becoming an interesting topic for researchand development, which gives a reasonable solution for decreasing the greenhousegas emissions. Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are one among the guaranteed motorsfor EV applications. Regenerative Braking (RGB) enhances energy usageeffectiveness as well as extends the driving distance of Electric vehicles. In thisresearch, by a single foot pedal, coordination of reformative as well as mechanicalbraking is attained, and the distribution of braking force is attained using FuzzyLogic Controller (FLC). With the intention of prolonging the EV’s driving miles, theusage of PV panels over the EV reduce the dependence on vehicle batteries. In thisresearch, a Single Stage Interaction Converter (SSIC) is introduced for directing theenergy flow amid the PV panel, battery and BLDC machine.The performance assessment is done in the environment of MATLABSimulink, in which the speed, stator current and voltage, and state of battery areevaluated. When compared to other approaches, the novel proposed approachprovides improved performance in terms of robustness, realization, and efficiency.The major beneficiary features of EV’s include greater efficiency, less emission,quiet operation, and so on. The EV’s turn out to be the most hopeful alternate to thetraditional fuel vehicles by means of the growth of battery and motor technologyJ.Caoet al.,(2011). In numerous industrial applications, Chemical batteries areutilized as the major Energy Storage System (ESS). In the electric bike/car industry,they are presently the leading technology. On the other hand, because of theinadequate battery capacities, EV’s still experience the foremost issue of shorterdriving range when matched up with the fuel vehiclesWith the intention ofprolonging the EV’s driving miles, the usage of PV panels on the vehicle reduces thedependence on vehicle batteries.1.1.Objectives of the ResearchThe main objectives of the proposed research work are as follows,By designing with minimum number of power semiconductor devices hencereduces the current conduction losses in the proposed converter withoutaffecting the performance of the systemDesign and evaluate the dynamic performance of the proposed converter byusing Voltage Distribution method.3
Manage and control a strong power flow between PV and battery for electrichybrid vehicle with proposed technology.Increase the overall efficiency of the proposed converter by using a singlestage power conversion technique and compared with conventional converterin terms of average losses and conversion efficiency.Increase the driving efficiency and performance of the Electric Vehicle bycontrolling the braking torque with a Fuzzy Logic based new regenerativebraking system and ANN based improved regenerative braking system.1.2.RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONThis research work is mainly focused to design and analyze the performance of anovel single stage Interconnected converterChenet al.,(2013)in a PV system. Theworking principle of the proposed converter under various operating modes andmathematical modelling are explained. The new control strategy for the proposedsystem is also discussed.The dynamic performance of the proposed converter can be evaluated byimplementing a three domain voltage distribution control method in terms of overallcomponent count, average losses and efficiency. Based on the solar radiation, theyare classified as Sun Domain (SD), Minimum Battery Charging Domain (MBCD)and Maximum Battery Discharge Domain (MBDD). When the proposed converter isoperating under different domains, it has less number of conducting componentshence resulting in reduction of converter size and conduction losses therebyimproving the efficiency. It is also proved that the performance of the proposedconverter is superior when compared with other conventional converters whileoperating in three distribution domains.The strong power flow between PV port and battery port for Electric hybridvehicle can be controlled by using a single stage proposed interconnected converter.The Fuzzy Logic based new regenerative braking system was implemented in orderto control the braking torque hence increase the driving efficiency and performanceof an Electric Vehicle. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based improvedregenerative braking system was suggested to control the braking torque henceincrease the driving efficiency and driving distance also performance of an ElectricVehicle in terms of robustness and realization.4
2.PROBLEM SPECIFICATIONFrom the literature survey, the dynamic performance of the conventional converter isfound to be poor due to more number of power semiconductor devices, there bygaining a complex system design. Due to high current conduction losses theefficiency of the converter is reduced. The conventional converter has a non-uniformflow of current between battery and load port when the battery is connected forcharging and the life period of the battery is reduced. Because of these drawbacks,they are not suitable for a PV-battery powered Electric Hybrid Vehicle system. Thiscould be rectified by using a boost bidirectional buck with buck boost converter(MB4C) which decreases the usage of power devices and the whole system design isfound to be more compact.The strong power flow management between PV and battery for Electricvehicle can be controlled by using single stage proposed converter. A Fuzzy Logicbased new regenerative braking system is proposed to control the braking torquehence increase the driving efficiency and performance of an Electric Vehicle. AnArtificial Neural Network (ANN) based Z. Chenet al.,(2014) improved regenerativebraking system to control the braking torque hence increase the driving efficiency,distance and performance of an Electric Vehicle in terms of strength and recognition.3.LITERATURE SURVEYA new systematic approach of deriving a three port converter from the fuelbridge converter is proposed by Wuet al.,(2012). The proposed converter can beapplied for renewable power system applications. A single stage power conversionmethod is used to achieve high efficiency and also to reduce the number of powerdevices used. But due to the high conduction losses, the conversion efficiency wasdecreased. The pulse width modulation techniques are utilized to reduce the DCbiasing of the transformer.Falconeset al.,(2010) presented a novelcontrol technique for a three-portDC-DC converter based PV system with large storage capacity. The proposedcontroller has the advantage of fast transient response and cross couplingcharacteristics. The three port topology is used to obtain a transient journey from thestorage. The other conventional design techniques such as SISO (Single Input Single5
Output) control design and Feed forward compensation are also presented. Theperformance of the proposed control systems is verified against simulation results.Chen, Wanget al.,(2014) presented a novelmicro-converter photovoltaicsystem consisting of Buck-Boost converters connected in a series manner and acentral inverter. Each PV panel is able to work at its limited maximum power point.The cascaded converter can function in buck or boost mode to comprehend theoutput voltage of wide range. The power balance between the series-connectedconverter and central inverter is maintained. A new updated procedure and safetyapproach is also proposed to improve stabilization and to start the converterscontinuously. The converter output voltage and control scheme are presented. Thesimulation results are compared with experimental results and they prove theadvantages of the proposed control approach.Balamurugan et al. (2012) presenteda fuzzy logic controller to control andtracking the maximum power for a combined PV and wind turbine system. Thehybrid integrated structure fed by PV and wind turbine sources suitable fordistributed generation is also proposed. Under all conditions, the proposed method iscapable of feeding a minimum amount of power to the power grid and working as anuninterruptable power source. When the switches are turned on/off the efficiency ofconventional boost converter is reduced due to hard switching and produces losses.The switching losses and voltage stress are reduced by the proposed switchingpattern.Jianget al.,(2009) presented acomparative calculation of the existing controlmethods for switch-mode converters suitable for PV applications. They are hysteresiscurrent control; current programmed control, average current control and nonlinearcarrier control methods under the load variations and input fluctuations. The staticand dynamic responses of the PV systems are examined and harmonic analysis isalso implemented.Sahinet al.,(2012) examined various control techniques to control the outputvoltage of the DC-DC converter. The presented techniques are successfullyimplemented and they are also proposed a technique with FLC. The techniques areimplemented for the buck-boost DC-DC converter useful for a PV battery-loadsystem. Two membership functions are used in the FLC to control the output voltageof the converter and by using gauss membership functions the output voltage was6
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